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How to build a simple Line Tracer Robot??

Updated on April 13, 2011

Some Advanced Line Tracers

Infrared LED
Infrared LED
Photodiode
Photodiode
LM324 Comparator IC
LM324 Comparator IC
L293D Motordriver IC
L293D Motordriver IC


Line Tracer or Line Follower Robot is one of the simplest bots fit for an amateur to dig into the vast field of Robotics. The same bot can be made complex in Mechanical implementation if  precision requirement is more. Lets have a look on how simply a Line Tracer can be constructed.

Requirements:

  1. Two DC Gearhead Motors: Can be 45 rpm or 100rpm or even more. 45/100 rpm may be better for beginners.
  2. Motor Driver IC L293D
  3. Comparator IC LM324
  4. Sensor Network : TSOP/(IR led-Photodiode) sensors may be used. Failure chance for TSOP is more. So neglect it. Lets proceed with IR LED- Photodiode Pair. A minimum of 2 sensor networks may be used.
  5. Castor Wheel for support (Typical Reverse Rickshaw design)



Working Principle:IR LED must be forward biassed (+5V) and Photodiode reverse biassed (-5V). The sensors must be arranged such that the radiations from IR LED must reach within the proximity of the photodiode in case of reflections from a white surface. Ideally, the reflectivity of white surface is 1 and that for black surfaces is 0. The Line tracer works on the above principle for distinguishing white and black surfaces. The difference in analog between the two surfaces must be made digital. The comparator IC LM324 is used for this purpose.
The comparator will give outputs either high or low which can be adjusted for black /white respectively or in the reverse order by adjusting the input of the comparator IC( inverting/non-inverting inputs).Suppose that white gives HIGH and Black LOW. The output from comparator must be coupled to the motor driver IC L293D accordingly.

Sensor Arrangement: At least there must be two sensors. I will discuss the case of two sensors. The sensors must be arranged such that the line to be followed lies between them. i.e, the two sensors senses the ouside of the required line.This is to facilitate the differentiation of turns. Take the case of a black line to be traced in a white background.The robot must be set to motion when both sensors detect white.In case if left sensor detects black and right sensor white, then a turn to left is detected and reverse for the case of a right turn.As soon as a left turn is detected the left tyre( motors connected directly to tyre) must be stopped and right motor must only rotated. Or even the left tyre (motor) may be rotated in the reverse direction. The reverse is the case with a right turn. The direction of rotation of the motor may be adjusted by controlling the input signals to motor driver IC.

In case of a black background with white lines, the logic must be reversed.

Some Negatives: The robot will move forward if it is kept in a white background without any black line and it will stay still if kept in a black Background. The bot will stop at Junctions. these defects can be eliminated by using a microcontroller chip which is programmed to our requirements.


For any further doubts, do comment.

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    • ayurveda profile image

      Reeshil N 7 years ago

      Reaaly informative.... Thank you very much....

    • profile image

      nikhil 7 years ago

      Thanks a lot..Although i knew this...all the information at one place helps revision and clears doubts

    • mobilephones profile image
      Author

      mobilephones 7 years ago from Bangalore, India

      thanks to nikhil and ayurveda

    • profile image

      karan wanchoo(wanchookaran@gmail.com) 7 years ago

      can u please tell how to makes this with at mega 8535

    • profile image

      ggkk 7 years ago

      how to follow black line and then to white line?? thanks

    • mobilephones profile image
      Author

      mobilephones 7 years ago from Bangalore, India

      @ggkk

      by incorporating programming techniques u can follow white line and then black line or vice versa. Try MPLAB or any other s.Tutorials are readily available on net.

    • profile image

      Abhishek 7 years ago

      veryy good info.

    • profile image

      arvind 7 years ago

      can u tell me how to make quick correction at the turns

    • mobilephones profile image
      Author

      mobilephones 7 years ago from Bangalore, India

      @arvind

      using motors with more traction will do. Also chose an optimum speed motor according to your bot's stability.

    • profile image

      Tito 7 years ago

      can u send me a full circuit diagram and components required . titokuttan@gmail.com

    • mobilephones profile image
      Author

      mobilephones 7 years ago from Bangalore, India

      @tito

      sent. check your inbox

    • profile image

      Tito 7 years ago

      i'm sorry i hav not yet got it pls resent it.i would be greatfull

    • profile image

      Tito 7 years ago

      ok check it

      tito.efire@gmail.com

    • profile image

      swapnil 7 years ago

      spsphulse@gmail.com

      can you help me out similarly in "micromouse"..????

    • profile image

      victor 7 years ago

      can i have the complete circuit..?

      badmudafuker@yahoo.com

    • profile image

      shashibhushan sharma 7 years ago

      thank you for this robot.

    • profile image

      yvhtejaswaroop 7 years ago

      hi. can u mail me the construction and design features of the object? please.

      my id id swrp_teja26@yahoo.com

    • profile image

      shashibhushan sharma 7 years ago

      please,you mail the construction of this robot.

    • profile image

      shashibhushan sharma 7 years ago

      piease,you mail the construction of this robot.

      my id sbs1988ss@ggmail.com

    • profile image

      hangal 6 years ago

      hi bro can you give me the ic type diagram and the ciruit diagram of this one coz im gonna make this one pls bro i really need this one to pass for my subj. :( snd it to me plssss @ st_hangal@yahoo.com

    • profile image

      nithin 6 years ago

      hi how can we make acute angled turns ?

    • profile image

      salman 6 years ago

      can you give me the ic type diagram and the ciruit diagram of this one

      salmanvirgo@hotmail.com

    • profile image

      chinky 6 years ago

      can u show mw how do i make the wiring of the sensors on the breadboard..?

    • profile image

      Himanshu 6 years ago

      Can u send me the circuit diagram of a line follwer .... with the components required on my mail id hims.destini@gmail.com

    • profile image

      viren 6 years ago

      hi bro can you give me the ic type diagram and the ciruit diagram of this one & send me a full circuit diagram and components required . coz im gonna make this one pls bro i really need this one

      viren89desai@yahoo.co.in

      thanx....

    • profile image

      anas 6 years ago

      nice

      intrstng!

      Can u plz sent a detailed fig

      to ur.anas@yahoo.com

    • profile image

      varky 6 years ago

      an u send me a full circuit diagram and components required . vargheseskaria2010@gmail.com please it is urgetnt

    • profile image

      jodieAJo 6 years ago

      hei......this look interesting.....

      can U please send me full circuit diagram n component thats needed to make this line tracer?????I need it....urgent....ASAP..please send to my email...

      jodie.ajo@hotmail.com

    • profile image

      Amar 6 years ago

      really awesome line tracer........!

      i am also interested in making a line tracer lyk this cud u plz send me the circuit diagram.. and the components required for me too plz ASAP :)

    • profile image

      Amar 6 years ago

      btw forgot to say my mail id

      vijayhtanrama@gmail.com

    • profile image

      brian 6 years ago

      where can you buy one of these?

    • profile image

      vertical_death 6 years ago

      the best inform can i get

    • profile image

      Anurag Kumar 6 years ago

      Gr8 work

    • mobilephones profile image
      Author

      mobilephones 6 years ago from Bangalore, India

      hey folks!!

      i have given more than enough info to construct a basic line tracer. Detailled circuit diagram will surely be spoon feeding.

      Try yourself with the skeletal data given.

    • profile image

      deepak 6 years ago

      what about the programming part?

      which language needs to be used?

    • profile image

      prathamesh chavan 6 years ago

      its realy gud tchnique.....

      but my question is will it creat any prob for single castor wheel???????

    • profile image

      ankur 6 years ago

      sir how can i make the robot move at junctions without a microcontroller

    • profile image

      bipinlaltheone 6 years ago

      please mail me the complete circuit &its coponent details my e-mail id is bipinlal007@gmail.com

    • profile image

      Adi Satria 6 years ago

      can you give me a full schematic of the line follower

      the diagram and its component on my e-mail

      satria_adi_prayoga@yahoo.co.id

    • profile image

      tijo 6 years ago

      plz do sent me the complete circuit diagrams to this e-mail id

      tijolpeter@gmail.com

    • profile image

      swapnil 6 years ago

      can u plzsend me d complete diagram n details of d line tracer...plz.

      mail me at swaprks@gmail.com

    • profile image

      shankar 6 years ago

      i have a feeling thatINTENTIONALLY/ PURPOSEFULLY ,the author does not give full required information /circuit diagram etc .This is true with some other projects also.

      This may be a BUSINESS TRIC so that the hobbyist is forced to buy the READY TO ASSEMBLE KITS.

    • profile image

      Virendra Rajput 6 years ago

      Hey it is use ful but you should provide a bit proframming tips too...

    • profile image

      Embedded projects 6 years ago

      I like robots very munch. Nice hub...Keep going...

    • mobilephones profile image
      Author

      mobilephones 6 years ago from Bangalore, India

      @shanker

      A true hobbyist don't want to be spoon fed. He has the knack to get what he wants and what he aims. Some ppl creep into robotics just to make their resumes colourful. They are not willing to work hard. They just want cakewalks. What is the point in soldering a circuit designed by others to bag some prize in some tech fest. Be daring to innovate. I think that I have provided ample framework. Refer datasheets and design a circuit by your own. Plagiarism wont guide you much.

    • mobilephones profile image
      Author

      mobilephones 6 years ago from Bangalore, India

      @ankur

      Brother, pls don't call me sir.

      btw, you can design some logic using gates. This may increase the number of sensors but can be done without using micro controllers.Also don't mix logic families in a single design. Either use CMOS or TTL. Skim throuh the datasheets.

    • mobilephones profile image
      Author

      mobilephones 6 years ago from Bangalore, India

      @prathamesh chavan

      Single castor wheel is good while negotiating turns. If speed matters most don't go for it.

    • profile image

      sanjay 5 years ago

      can u send me the full circuit diagram and the components required?

    • profile image

      Hariharan 5 years ago

      Thank u a lot.I just want to satart robotics and your explanation was very informative.

    • profile image

      roopak 5 years ago

      everything was okk except the coonection parts ...........that's not eplained practicallyyyyyyyyyy

    • profile image

      chan 5 years ago

      please send me complete details , circuit diagram and components required .....plz brother

      my mail id electrochan@gmail.com

      it would sure help me for the symposium i am going to take part next week... :-)

    • profile image

      abhi 5 years ago

      can u send me a full circuit diagram and components required . akothekar55@gmail.com

    • profile image

      abhishek 5 years ago

      please send me complete details , circuit diagram and components required .....plz brother

      my mail id akothekar55@gmail.com

    • profile image

      man 5 years ago

      can u help me?please send me the flowchart and circuit diagram..i really need it..

      mandini89@yahoo.com

    • profile image

      Jasin k t 5 years ago

      Sir i am very intersting about in this project ,plz send full details about this ,block diagram etc, thing these facility to requirea in another areas

    • profile image

      jayson 5 years ago

      bro can u send the full circuit diagram for your robot....

    • profile image

      leks 5 years ago

      can u send me the full circuit diagram and the components required?

      lekelaplace@live.co.uk

    • profile image

      abady 5 years ago

      can u send me the full circuit diagram and the components required?

      ab-uk@hotmail.com

      thanks

    • profile image

      yuvraj 5 years ago

      i am fate up,seeing only external parts.please could you email me the clear total including circuit diagram of line tracer robort

    • profile image

      Athul Sekhar 5 years ago

      Pls snd full circuit diagram using IC

    • profile image

      vijay 5 years ago

      wastefalo ..........nv nee chettha mattr,adisinatte undi

    • profile image

      kamalkant 5 years ago

      its interesting so plz send more detailes of this ............ and how we enhance our skills to thing other extra programming based robots......

    • profile image

      Kuldeep 4 years ago

      can u plz tell that in Sensor cirucuit, what r TX and RX,,i mean whr 2 connect them!

    • profile image

      bisan pradhan 4 years ago

      Hie plez send me a details construction procedure ,data and circuit diagram..........

    • profile image

      iik 4 years ago

      the Tx is transmitter and Rx is receiver noob

    • profile image

      uzan 4 years ago

      plz send me construction process and full circuit diagram....

      ujanshrestha22@gmail.com

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