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Updated on November 24, 2009

The data that is input to computer system may be processed and transformed into information products. These computational activist of data input processing and information output are performed with the help of various hardware devices under the supervision of a set of computer program i.e. operating system and  other application or system software. An operation system is the most significant kind of system software that contain certain distinctive characteristics like:

  • Managing the software and hardware resources of the computer system.
  • Controlling the functionalities of all hardware and software resources in addition to their management.
  • Controlling the functionalities of all hardware and software resources in addition to their management.
  • Providing user friendly interfaces that enable user to operate the computer system.


A computer system is an integration of hardware and software the main hardware components like input, output peripherals, Secondary storage devices, primary memory and its types, and processor along with its components like ALU, CU and set of register will be discussed with full detail. Then come the interconnection elements like buses and ports that provide the way of communication or transfer of data information within or out of the central processing unit (CPU). The way simple machine instructions are organized and their Fetch Decode Execute cycles will also obey discussed in detail. After the complete understanding of these components and criterion, the types and functionalities of different software (both system and application).

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE: Computer architecture means the combination of different hardware c components parts within the computer system. In other words we can sat that computer architecture is the way o organize the four main components and

connect them to obtain a complete computer system in working condition. There are for main components of a computer system which are given one by one below:

·        Processing unit

·        Primary memory

·        Secondary memory

·        Input Output peripherals

In addition to these basic components of a working computer system, we have buses, ports and cable that provide interconnections among the above main components.


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