Basically, X-rays are rays that pass through your muscles and flesh but cannot completely penetrate through the bones completely, leaving an image on the sheet.
An X-ray machine is essentially a camera. Instead of visible light, however, it uses X-rays to expose the film.
X-rays are like light in that they are electromagnetic waves, but they are more energetic so they can penetrate through many materials to varying degrees. When the X-rays hit the film, they expose it just as light would.
Since bone, fat, muscle, tumors and other masses all absorb X-rays at different levels, the image on the film lets you see different (distinct) structures inside the body because of the different levels of exposure on the film.
The reason you see only bones or tumors is because they are solid and therefore X-ray light rays can not pass through.
You can see the example in the X-ray picture.
Okay, what you're seeing is a negative exposure to x-rays reflecting off of matter such as skin and other tissue. The x-rays come back into the lens and create an image. Anything that did not come back to the lens was absorbed therefor giving you the image you see.
x-rays are dangerous though, they are higher up in the light spectrum and carry with them radiation. That is why we wear protective lead vests and other lead armor.
The X-ray picture a doctor uses to see inside your body is really a shadow picture of your bones and organs. X-rays are a kind of invisible ray. They are related to light rays, but X-rays are more penetrating than an ordinary light ray. They can pass through most solid objects. When X-rays pass through your body, they cast a shadow pattern of your bones and other interior parts on a piece of X-ray film, which is then developed much like the film you use in a camera. The X-ray photograph helps a doctor locate broken bones and diagnose certain diseases.
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