Pencils used to be made of lead before they discovered that is was bad for you. Nowadays, pencils are made with graphite, a mineral that leaves a gray mark on any light surface.
I Know! (Being a pencil artist!).
Pencils are a mixture of graphite and clay. The more clay, the harder the pencil. Graphite is made of flat shiny particles. The softer pencils have more graphite, and I suspect, larger particles because I've noticed a different interaction between certain paper's and their tooth and the hardness of the pencil. You can layer hard on soft or soft on hard, each gives a different resulting texture. For artwork, it's important to retain the tooth of the paper to mitigate shine in dark areas. Don't press hard, use repeated gentle application and maybe blending to force the graphite into the tooth without crushing it.
Graphite, also called plumbago and black lead. It is a very pure form of carbon which is found in a natural state in the ground and can be made artificially from coke. After being ground into a very fine powder, the graphite is mixed with clay. The larger the proportion of clay, the "softer" the "lead" will be. The mixture is placed in a cylinder and forced out of it through a hole as a square or round thread. This is allowed to dry, and is then cut up into lengths, which are hardened by being baked in a furnace. They are then ready for encasing in wood.
There are using of the marking machines like co2 laser or YAG laser marking machine to mark the pencil.
Most of the manufacturing company use YAG laser marking machine for it...
The best YAG laser marking machine produce at the needham-laser in UK
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