ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

What are the Ethics of a Hubber

Updated on June 27, 2013

What is an Ethic?

Ethic is defined as the moral principles that govern a person's behavior towards another soul.

What has Ethics to do with Hubpages and a Hubber?

Hubpages, has become a huge community and we are over 200,000 hubbers/writers publishing over a million hubs on this site. These hubs/articles are guaranteed to be 100% original from the author.

That means there's a lot of writing happening on this site!

However, the Code of Ethics a writer/hubber should follow are:-

  • Writer should acknowledge the contribution of others.
  • Any text taken from another author should be enclosed in quotation marks.
  • A writer should ALWAYS acknowledge every source that he uses in his writing. He could paraphrase the text or summarize it or enclose it in quotations.
  • If the writer is paraphrasing other author's work or idea or facts; he should be able to reproduce the exact meaning of the author's work.
  • When a writer is in doubt as to whether a concept or fact is common knowledge, it is best to provide a citation.
  • Authors are strongly encouraged to become familiar with basic elements of copyright law since there have been instances of plagiarism.
  • Authors can/must use copyright symbol in their published articles. The symbol identifies the owner/creator of the work along with the year of its publication. Copyright protection is automatic. Works don't need to be registered.

How to make a Copyright C symbol on a PC Keyboard

Hold down Ctrl and Alt at the same time and press C

Control + Alt + C

Hold down Alt and type 0169 on the number pad

Alt + 0169

How to make a Copyright C Symbol on a Mac Keyboard

Hold down Option at the same time and press 'g' to get the copyright symbol.


A summary of writer's ethics and copyright rules were taken from

What are the Ethics of being a follower on Hubpages

On Hubpages, a member/hubber is supposed to write informative hubs/articles and if that interests another fellow hubber. He can follow that hubber and read his latest publications by getting email updates.

Ethics come into action when the follower stops by to read a hub. Comments are mandatory. Speak your mind. If the reader does not comply with what's written he has all the liberty to dis-agree but do express yourself. And if the reader likes what he is reading, leave a few words of praise. This encourages the writer to write more meaningful hubs.

HubPages community has been very supportive so far. Hubbers have been reading and leaving kind words of encouragement for all the writers in hubpages. Now, that explains why we have over 2 million hubs published so far!

Following a hubber just because he is following you is NOT my rule of ethic. It all melts down to

  • CONTENT of your interest
  • CONTENT that interests you
  • CONTENT that ignites your imagination

IF the reader likes what he is reading then he can follow the hubber or choose not to follow him even IF the latter is following him. There is no rule of compulsion here.

As a hubber, we are wearing two shoes...a READER and a WRITER.

Do Justification in both arenas. Treat your hubber as you would like to be treated. Read, Appreciate their work and your work will also be read and appreciated.

This is a small community and let's keep the candle of knowledge burning so that the shine of the light can attract more people to join this site.

More the Merrier!

Do you stand by ethics?

See results

┬ęCopyright Ruchira2012. All Rights Reserved.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • PaoloJpm profile image

      John Paolo B.Magdaluyo 

      6 years ago from Philippine

      Wow! great hub you have here. Your following rule truly impressive, and very informative. proper ethics is a MUST to everybody not only on Hubpages but to all aspect in life.

    • TToombs08 profile image

      Terrye Toombs 

      6 years ago from Somewhere between Heaven and Hell without a road map.

      Wonderful advice, Ruchira. A brilliant hub that I'm sure many (myself included) can use. Voted up and more.

    • lex123 profile image


      6 years ago

      Though most of the hubbers probably know the ethics of this community it makes more meaningful to read a written hub about it. Thanks for taking this topic and writing a hub, Ruchira. Well done! Voted it up.

    • AudreyHowitt profile image

      Audrey Howitt 

      6 years ago from California

      I am wondering how I missed this article Ruchira--Just an excellent article! I am always bothered with the casualness I see in citing source material here. So, I was so glad to see you addressing this issue. Sharing!

    • TToombs08 profile image

      Terrye Toombs 

      7 years ago from Somewhere between Heaven and Hell without a road map.

      Ruchira, a very good lay out of hubber's ethics. All very pertinent. Voted up and more.

    • janshares profile image

      Janis Leslie Evans 

      7 years ago from Washington, DC

      Thank you, Ruchira, for covering this subject. The information is helpful and useful to me as a new hubber. There is so much to know about the etiquette of hubbing. I hope I haven't made any bloobers unknowingly. I didn't realize that copyright can be done so informally without fees, and an application to the Library of Congress. I guess that's just for printed work. Thanks for the clarification.

    • cclitgirl profile image

      Cynthia Calhoun 

      7 years ago from Western NC

      Excellent points and tips, Ruchira. I even learned somethings - I didn't know about the keyword shortcut for the copyright symbol. Good to know! Thank you for sharing these ideas!

    • Dee aka Nonna profile image

      Dee aka Nonna 

      7 years ago

      This is really great information. Anytime I read the works of another hubbers I always leave a comment.....I want them to think and feel that I respect their work...which I do. I have found some wonderful, wonderful writers on hubpages. Even if I disagree with what they have written I still leave a respectful, non-combative, comment.

      Voted up, useful, and interesting.

    • Mazzy Bolero profile image

      Mazzy Bolero 

      7 years ago from the U.K.

      As for always following people who follow you, I like to read a few of their hubs before following them. Then at least it means something that I've decided to follow. I don't follow all. For instance, one hubber who followed me turned out to be a business located on the West coast of the USA, whose building services I could not possibly ever use, and all the hubs related to this business. So I didn't follow them. That does not mean I don't appreciate their following me. Sometimes you also get new hubbers who just follow hundreds in order to get followers, without ever reading anything. I will read their hubs before following them. Sometimes I don't immediately get round to it, so I hope that doesn't seem ill-mannered. Personally, I would rather have someone follow me because they enjoyed reading my hubs than just out of politeness because I followed them.

    • Brett.Tesol profile image

      Brett C 

      7 years ago from Asia

      Very true words! I also appreciated the keyboard shortcut, I had always used copy and paste for the symbol, but now I know. As for hubbing, it is basically being a friend and a good part of the community. If you help others and give honest feedback, it seems to be genuinely appreciated here!!

      Sharing with followers, as many are new. Up, useful and interesting.

    • cashmere profile image


      7 years ago from India

      Thanks for the keyboard shortcuts! I usually do a google search and then copy paste the symbols. This makes life easier :)

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Hi Mary, I feel comments makes the writer feel appreciated thus, sure it's mandatory :)

      Thanks Peggy. I also have to add the copyright symbol to many of my hubs.

      Thanks Trish. Yes, all feels good to be appreciated :) Thanks for stopping by. Will swing by your hubs.

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Thank you taazakhabar

      the lyricwriter




      Appreciate your responses and feedback...cheers!

    • Trish_M profile image

      Tricia Mason 

      7 years ago from The English Midlands

      Hi :)

      I certainly agree that we all need to be aware of copyright law.

      And I do think that it is nice to leave a comment, if one reads an article. It is great to receive feedback :)

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      7 years ago from Houston, Texas

      Hi Ruchira,

      I agree with everything that you say and my only ommission is that I have not been putting the year of publication after the copyright symbol. I'll start doing it from this point forward. On many of my older hubs I had not put the copyright symbol but as I go back, I am adding it. One can only hope that people use good ethics when writing. Up and useful votes and will share.

    • mary615 profile image

      Mary Hyatt 

      7 years ago from Florida

      If I read your sentence correctly: did you say leaving comments is mandatory??

      Good informative Hub, Ruchira.

      I voted it UP, etc.etc.

    • Paul Kuehn profile image

      Paul Richard Kuehn 

      7 years ago from Udorn City, Thailand


      These are all very useful ethics which hubbers should be following. You definitely should acknowledge the work of others which you are using or referring to in your own hubs. As to following other hubbers who follow you, I agree that it is not necessary to follow everyone who is following you. Common sense should dictate what you do. Voted up as useful and sharing.

    • tammyswallow profile image


      7 years ago from North Carolina

      Well said Ruchira! I agree with all the items you laid out here. Following this code will help all our reputations as writers. Great thoughts here.

    • rajan jolly profile image

      Rajan Singh Jolly 

      7 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar, INDIA.

      Ruchira, this sure is a useful and the instructions to make the copyright symbol were perfect. I was wanting to know how to do this.

      Thanks for sharing.

      BTW, I like the different look of the hub, especially, the tweety at the bottom is too cute.

      Voted up, useful interesting and shared.

    • thelyricwriter profile image

      Richard Ricky Hale 

      7 years ago from West Virginia

      Ruchira, this was a great article. I agree with you about hubbing ethics. This would be a great page for any hubber starting out, even the vets. Ethics are important anywhere you go. Great article Ruchira. Have a good one:)

    • taazakhabar profile image


      7 years ago from New Delhi, India

      True enough ethics are important in anything you do. Very useful info. thanks for sharing

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      welcome irishexaminer and I am glad this was helpful. Wishing you the best, always!

      Thankyou jo_goldsmith11 for your kind words...appreciate them!

    • Jo_Goldsmith11 profile image


      7 years ago

      This is really cool. I like the way you have formatted it and gave many examples. I thank you and I voted this up and shared on twitter. I have been here almost a year now! I am so glad and feel blessed to have the opportunity to be here and now to read your work. Take care. :)

    • irishexaminer profile image


      7 years ago from Ireland

      Thank you so much, I am just beginning and feel a bit nervous. very helpful.

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      I am glad you found it helpful Thelma.

      Great to see you :)

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Good question, vicki about copyrighting. I agree that once you write your original work, it is automatically copy righted but, in many cases people need to be reminded on paper thus, the above way to write the symbol et. al.

      thanks for stopping by! Always a pleasure to see you!

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      yup, agree BBG. Gotta follow someone who inspires you in ways and boy, I am glad to be one of your plenty followers


    • Thelma Alberts profile image

      Thelma Alberts 

      7 years ago from Germany and Philippines

      Hi Ruchira! This is a very informative hub and thanks for SHARING this to us. Voted up and useful. Have a great weekend!

    • Victoria Lynn profile image

      Victoria Lynn 

      7 years ago from Arkansas, USA

      Great hub! Good info about plagiarism and how to do a copyright. But since they are automatically copyrighted, do we need to put the copyright symbol on them? I'm often wondered that. Many votes on this one. Good job!

    • barbergirl28 profile image

      Stacy Harris 

      7 years ago from Hemet, Ca

      Well said... I think one of the biggest things about Hubpages is the question who to follow and why you follow someone. I feel bad sometimes because some people who may have followed me ... I am not interested in the topics they write about. That being said, I always try to get in a little reading. I tell you... however thought that writing on Hubpages could be so tough and time-consuming! LOL

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Hi Freezbay,

      I am glad this hub was helpful to you :)

      Cheers my friend!

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Hello Ishwarayaa22,

      I am glad you found the above useful. Regarding making bullet points in your text...when you are writing text in a box, there is an option of either giving nos OR bullet to a text that you want. Inshort..the answer to your question is right in the text box that you are typing in :)


    • profile image


      7 years ago

      Hey Ruchi,

      Really informative hub! I specifically wanna thank ya for the Copyright trick. i dint know the way to create the Copyright Logo. Each time I needed the, I used to got my blog and copied it from there. Now, it's just got easier!

      One more thing for the readers. The Copyright Symbol appears only when you hold the ctrl first, then alt and then c! Change of this order and u won't see the Logo!

    • ishwaryaa22 profile image

      Ishwaryaa Dhandapani 

      7 years ago from Chennai, India

      Your hub enlightened me with regard to this enrapturing subject! The code of ethics of hubbers listed by you are very informative. Your guidance on creating copyright symbol and stating the year are very helpful( I tried to figure it for a while till now thanks to you!).

      Please guide me how to create bullet-points for each line. Will await your reply anytime.

      Thanks for SHARING. Useful & Interesting. Voted up & Socially Shared.

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Hi MsOlive,

      Well said indeed. I have also personally learnt so much from all you hubbers and the tribute is an endless saga. I also agree it becomes difficult to read and comment on all the hubbers one follows 'cause unfortunately we have only 24 hours in a day and got to finish off other priorities in our lives.

      well said indeed...thanks for a valuable feedback.

    • missolive profile image

      Marisa Hammond Olivares 

      7 years ago from Texas

      A beautiful example of ethics and great advice. We must acknowledge our writing and the items we research from appropriately. I really liked your example of the two shoes - reader and writer. This is a very important aspect of the HubPages community. Writing is just half the fun. We can learn so much from each other and we should acknowledge our colleagues as needed. We have many wonderful talented authors here - HubPages is a virtual classroom for all.

      Maintaining the pace of comments has become more difficult as followers grow, but I do try. Not always an easy task.

      Thanks for sharing your views.

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      good for you, 34th bomb group :)

      good luck!

    • profile image

      34th Bomb Group 

      7 years ago

      makusr sums up my position perfectly. I know when it's a duck...

      No one need tell me that I can't plagiarize. I know it when I see it so to speak.

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Hi Manoj,

      Good to see you...where have you been, my friend?

      I agree..what your soul agrees to..are the ethics...well said, indeed.

      Keep hubbing around. Thanks for stopping by :)

    • makusr profile image

      Manoj Kumar Srivastava 

      7 years ago from India

      Ruchira, Ethics are what my heart likes and mind okays. Apart from that no definitions. You, however are as good as always all ways. Thanks for it. Good informative piece.


    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Glad the above content was useful for all...Thank you





      Thanks for your vote of confidence...appreciate it!

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Hi Linda,

      I am glad you got some useful information from the above. Cheers!

      Hi Ruchi,

      Thanks for your vote of confidence...Appreciate it.

    • sholland10 profile image

      Susan Holland 

      7 years ago from Southwest Missouri

      Ruchira, this is great advice, especially about citing another's work. I am in the middle of teaching research right now. LOL

      Thank you for showing how to make the copyright C. I have been copy/pasting mine. Now I don't have to go look for it each time.

      A very helpful hub. VOTES and SHARES!! :-)

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      This is an excellent hub Ruchira.You give some good tips and are very correct about writers citing their work.

      Voted Up

    • Made profile image

      Madeleine Salin 

      7 years ago from Finland

      I think many new hubbers make the mistake to follow everybody, who follows them. Very good hub!

    • dilipchandra12 profile image

      Dilip Chandra 

      7 years ago from India

      Good hub, informative and useful. Well written, Voted UP...

    • Ruchi Urvashi profile image

      Ruchi Urvashi 

      7 years ago from Singapore

      Great hub and ethics. I like what you wrote about ethics of being a follower and agree with that. Keep it up. Voted up.

    • Sunshine625 profile image

      Linda Bilyeu 

      7 years ago from Orlando, FL

      Interesting about the copyright symbol. I learned something new today thanks to you!:)

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Well said indeed...Marcy!

      This is a good community and let's try to keep it intact.


    • Marcy Goodfleisch profile image

      Marcy Goodfleisch 

      7 years ago from Planet Earth

      This is a very timely hub - thanks for publishing it. Many writers here are new, and can inadvertently fail to acknowledge sources or might copy original text without yet understanding the ethics rules.

      We owe it to HubPages, which has provided us this great forum for writing, to honor their guidelines and to respect other writers, even if they disagree with us. The 'down' button is not meant to be used as an attack strategy.

      Voted up, useful and interesting.

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Thank you farmloft.

    • farmloft profile image


      7 years ago from Michigan

      Good advice, hubbers wear both shoes! Voted up.

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Thank you Lesley.

      I am glad you agree with the above! Cheers!

    • Movie Master profile image

      Movie Master 

      7 years ago from United Kingdom

      Hi Ruchira, this is a very informative and useful hub thank you for sharing and voted up.

      Best wishes Lesley

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Thanks Shasta. Appreciate you stopping by.g

    • Millionaire Tips profile image

      Shasta Matova 

      7 years ago from USA

      Ethics are important in all of life, including being a reader and writer here on HubPages. Well said.

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Thank you 34th Bomb Group. Wishing you luck in your future endeavors!

    • 34th Bomb Group profile image

      34th Bomb Group 

      7 years ago from Western New York State

      Well done!

      If I ever get around to writing, I'll be sure to read this again beforehand. Thus far I remain timid.


    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Thank you PurvisBobbi44 and Annie :)

      Your valuable feedback and vote of confidence!

    • Fennelseed profile image

      Annie Fenn 

      7 years ago from Australia

      I also like the views you have expressed here and I too feel every hubber should read this.

      "Treat your hubber as you would like to be treated" - words we can all abide by.

      I am book marking this hub to come back to again and again as your words here are wise rules for all hubbers.

    • PurvisBobbi44 profile image


      7 years ago from Florida


      Very informative hub, I enjoyed reading it.



    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      haha...we sure do tsmog :)

      Thank you for whatever you do best. It is still appreciated!

    • tsmog profile image

      Tim Mitchell 

      7 years ago from Escondido, CA

      I like the view you have expressed. I'll be honest I vote much more than write comments. And, at times leave comments thought not follow etiquette by being too long. Th closing sentiment is a favorite goal. Now, when I learn SEO and get more outside readership it will be more interesting. Isn't this a fun and exciting adventure we have here?

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Hi Flora,

      Thank you!

      I am glad this hub could be of interest to you. Frankly, even I did not know how to put that c in a circle :)

      but, learnt it now :)

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Hi Thomas,

      You are doing a fantastic job and will continue to do so...Regarding the legalities, I am not much of a knowledgeable person myself. Just trying to aspire be a good writer amongst you all :)

      Thank you your vote of confidence and sharing...appreciate it!

    • FloraBreenRobison profile image


      7 years ago

      Congratulations on 100 hubs. I never did know before how to make the C copyright instead of writing down the entire word.

    • ThoughtSandwiches profile image


      7 years ago from Reno, Nevada


      Excellent insight into this very diverse community of talented writers!

      You are correct, as a medium of communication, this is not without its miscues...some common guidelines rooted in ethical helpful.

      For my own self I have occasionally wondered...all my material is original...but I take fellow Hubbers and occasionally plop them into my stories. That said...any attributes I make from them are usually in the form of dialogue from them as one of my characters.

      I'm not sure of the legal implication, then again, I'm usually not.


      Voting Up and sharing!

    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      Thank you











      Appreciate you ALL stopping by with your valuable feedback and support!

    • teaches12345 profile image

      Dianna Mendez 

      7 years ago

      You have posted some great points on being an ethical hubber. Following those who you have an interest in learning from is great advice. Thanks for sharing.

    • always exploring profile image

      Ruby Jean Richert 

      7 years ago from Southern Illinois

      This is very useful Ruchira. Thank you so much...

    • Happyboomernurse profile image

      Gail Sobotkin 

      7 years ago from South Carolina

      This is a very informative hub and I appreciate your sharing this information on HubPages.

      Voted up, useful and interesting.

    • Barbara Kay profile image

      Barbara Badder 

      7 years ago from USA

      I didn't know how to type the copyright sign. Thanks for the info.

      I have the bad habit of following new hubbers when they follow me to encourage them. I remember what it was like when I first started on Hubpages. Since I've heard that following too many writers will make our Hubscores go down, I need to quit doing that.

    • Ralph Deeds profile image

      Ralph Deeds 

      7 years ago from Birmingham, Michigan

      Good recommendations. Nice job!

    • jainismus profile image

      Mahaveer Sanglikar 

      7 years ago from Pune, India

      Ruchira, it is a very useful information for new Hubbers. Voted up and shared.

    • rob_allen profile image


      7 years ago from MNL, PH

      Ruchira you hit the right spot! Every hubber should read this because it is very applicable and useful. Excellent hub! Voted up!

    • Jessi10 profile image

      Jessica Rangel 

      7 years ago from Lancaster, CA

      Excellent HUB! Very useful! This is information that every Hubber should know!

    • rlaha profile image


      7 years ago from Spartanburg, SC

      Hi Ruchira.

      Thanks so much for clarifying whether or not I should follow another Hubber to reciprocate that Hubber following me. I always was confused about that. Great hub! Voted up, useful, interesting and shared!

    • thougtforce profile image

      Christina Lornemark 

      7 years ago from Sweden

      Good hub on an important subject. This is a great community and we need some ethics to keep it that way. Since this is communication without body language and face expressions we must think about how we behave and follow ethics as much as possible!

      I also liked the way you designed the hub, it looks great,


    • Ruchira profile imageAUTHOR


      7 years ago from United States

      haha...Frank you sure are doing justice to whom you follow by stopping by with your valuable feedback :)

      You sure are following the ethics my friend :) Thanks for your support!

    • Frank Atanacio profile image

      Frank Atanacio 

      7 years ago from Shelton

      Ruch.. you are always helpful.. gotta love you for that :) Now when it comes to followers I only follow who I read.. so am I really not following the ethics of a hubber?


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)