ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

A focus on the Statistical Methods Used in Counselling Research

Updated on January 30, 2015

The clinician’s guide to evidence based practice is a guide for clinicians on conducting research authored by Koocher and Hogan (2008). The guide is meant to help practitioners in the field of addiction and psychology to access, interpret, and apply evidence based practices in their profession. The authors came up with this guideline after realizing the necessity of integrating the expertise of the clinicians and the current evidence based research in the context of the specific client. They are of the opinion that practitioners should base their practices on the best available evidence. However, most of the available studies seem to be either too overwhelming, inaccessible or too large to be used as guide in clinical practice. For many years, health practitioners seem to have no time in finding the right research, insufficient skills to retrieve the research and decreased capacity to understanding novel studies. It is therefore with this reason why the guide was designed in order to overcome such challenges. The subsequent part is an overview of the statistical concepts suggested in the article and how they can be applied in counseling research and program based evaluations.

Meta-analysis

Meta analysis is a statistical term used to refer to a technique of combining and contrasting findings from various studies. The technique is also used to identify the prevalent patterns existing research findings, sources of differences among such findings or the correlation existing among them. In most cases, Meta analyzes are employed in procedures involving systematic reviews. For example, Meta analyses are often used in clinical trials to gain an enhanced understanding on the efficiency of a particular treatment (Greenland and Rourke 2008).

With regard to counseling research and program evaluations, Meta analysis could be very helpful as it offers relevant data in these fields through synthesizing systematic studies and outcomes done by other researchers. This can then turn into effective counseling practices and programs when applied. It is the duty of researchers to ensure that the studies used when conducting meta- analysis are of top quality to guarantee quality practices.

Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a statistical term used to refer to a technique of establishing decisions based on a scientific research. Hypothesis tests are employed in determining how the anticipated outcome could result into a rejection of the null hypothesis for a particular type of significance. In studies pertaining to counseling and program evaluation, it helps in determining whether the results obtained from a particular study presents new findings that are different from the common wisdom, owing to the fact that the common wisdom are employed in forming such hypothesis (Schervish, 2006). Studies relating to program evaluation and counseling would have to use hypothesis to establish a correlation between two variables. The ethical concern in this method is that researchers are not expected to over -rely on the null hypothesis when conducting their research. In addition, the researchers are also required not to ignore the assumptions made.

Query Formulation Using PICO

Pico is a prefix used in clinical, counseling and program evaluations studies to aid the formulation of correct research questions. The technique is based on the idea that right questions in clinical and counsilling research should or ought to incorporate four parts, namely: patient or population problem, intervention, comparison and finally, the outcome. Forming the right questions to guide clinical and counseling research is a skill that requires thorough knowledge and is essential for the decision making process of the evidence-based practices. In addition to incorporating the PICO components, it is also crucial for the researcher or the author to clarify the type of queries they are going to address and the research technique to the participants. The category of questions to be applied includes Diagnosis, etiology, therapy/prevention and prognosis.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)