Arabs invasion of India
During 636-37 A.D. during the reign of Caliph of Omar, Arabs launched naval expeditions to conquer western coast, but were repulsed at Thane near Trambay. Because of the failure of naval expeditions, they tried through land routes. In 644 A.D. their attempt through Makran coast failed. Finally, in 711 A.D., they succeeded under the leadership of Muhammed-bin-Qasim, deputy of the Arab Governor of Iraq.
Conquest of Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Persia, made them to think of more conquests. Dry lands under their rule could not give them much revenue, and they got attracted by the riches of India. And they also wanted to spread Islam.
However, the immediate cause for the Arab expedition against Sind was the plunder of Arab merchandise by the Sindhi pirates. As king Dahir of Sind failed to comply with the message of Al Hajjal, (the Viceroy of eastern provinces of the Khalifa) in punishing and reparating the loss due to Sindhi pirates, the latter send expeditions led by his deputy Mohammed-bin-Qasim against the former resulting the conquest of Sindh in 712 A.D.
Henceforth, Sindh continued to be under Muslim occupation. The Arabs could not penetrate further into India in the 8th century A.D. due to the presence of the formidable Pratihara Kingdom in Western India, and also due to the wrong choice of Sindh which could not provide them with the necessary resources to conquer India.From 871 A.D., Arab rulers ruled independently by breaking the control of Caliph.
- Arab scholars started learning the ancient wisdom of Indians from Hindu pandits.
- Several Sanskrit works on astronomy, astrology, mathematics, medicine philosophy and other branches of knowledge were translated into Arabic. Some of the Arab works were also translated into Sanskrit.
- The Arabs learnt the figures from one to nine (Indian numerals), which Europeans learnt later from the Arabs as Arabic numerals.
- The Arabs learnt the game of chess from the Hindus.
- Hindu physicians were put incftarge of hospitals in Baghdad.
- Islam became an important religion of the Sindh.
Invasions of Mohmud Ghazni
Mohmud of Ghazni invaded India 17 times. His motive was to plunder the riches of Indian temples. In 1026, he plundered the famous Somnath temple in Gujarat.
Invasions of Mohammad Ghori
Muizzuddin Mohammad-bin-Sam (Mohammed of Ghori) invaded India out of territorial ambitions. He first occuped Multan in 1175. However, he was defeated by Bhima II, the Solanki ruler of Gujarat in 1178. In 1191, he again suffered a defeat at the hands of Prithviraj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain. However, he crushed Prithviraj in the second Battle of Tarain in 1192 with the help of Jai Chandra of Gahadwala. In 1194, Muhammed defeated Jai Chandra himself in the Battle of Chandwar Muhammed was murdered by an Afghan Muslim fanatic in 1206, soon after his suppression of the rebellion of the Kokkass in Punjab.
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