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Basic Management Functions

Updated on April 29, 2015

Basic Management functions

An illustration on basic management functions. The functions of managers.
An illustration on basic management functions. The functions of managers. | Source

What are Basic Management Functions

Introduction

In the history of management, there is no generally accepted consensus or agreement on the functions management of any organization should perform. The functions performed by any management are dependent on him and the organization he or she manages.


When it comes to religion for example, there are many of them which include Christian, Islamic, Buddhism, Judaism and so on. These religions have individual religious function they perform. The functions of these individual religions may differ and none can force the other to do what it does not want to do. Christians have the functions they are to perform as those that belong to Christian religion but it does not imply that those that do not want to adhere to the functions should be killed or forced.


With the help of the illustrations made in the above paragraph, there are basic fundamental functions which managements are to perform for the success of the organization but it is not all of them that carryout the functions required from them. The function that ‘Manager Stanley’ wants to perform in his organization may not be the same with that which ‘Manager Michael’ wants to go along with in his own company. But the truth is that among the functions mapped out by two of them, there is possibility that all should have similarities when examined critically.

The managements of organizations organize, lead, control and help in the staffing.
The managements of organizations organize, lead, control and help in the staffing. | Source

The Basic Management Functions

Many authors have said many things on management functions based on their understanding and clarifications. According an author called Batty, he gave the basic functions of management as forecasting, planning, organizing, motivational, controlling, communication, leadership, decision making and co-ordination.


Based on other authors: Koontz, O’Donnell and Weihrich, their list of management functions includes:

  • Planning ;
  • Organizing;
  • Staffing;
  • Leading; and
  • Controlling.


This list of all the functions of managements centres principally on four keywords. These keywords are planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The keywords are the reasons that make some authors to define management as the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling of organizations.

Planning as a basic management function
Planning as a basic management function | Source

Planning: This is the process of determining and setting organizational goals to achieve a desired result. It is the duty of a manager to plan on how the organizational functions will be conducted. Planning is deciding what to do, when and how to do it. It is determination of organizational goals and method to adopt to achieve them.


The type of goal of any organization is dependent on the kind of organization. In university for instance, the goal of the organization to students can be on how to make achieve academic excellence. Again, if the organization is a youth initiative one, the main goal can be on to teach the youths in importance of youth empowerment.


A manager who plans his organization in the right and good way can achieve his organizational goals with fewer challenges. It is necessary to plan so that no setback will be incurred in an organization. It is the duty of the manager or the management to develop a vision of the organization overall direction and priorities at the top level of the organization. Again, managers who operate at lower level perform functions like scheduling or they train employees on how to perform the tasks.


It is the sole duty of the management to plan on the number of employee to be taken into an organization for the growth of the establishment. He has to check the size of the company to determine the number to be taken for effective operation of the organization at large. When he plans on the number of workers to be absorbed, he has to make sure that their qualifications is sound and pays for their services. It is not after employing large number of them, he then finds it difficult to pay for their salaries.


What is the targeted profit a manager wants to make at the end of each week or month from his organization? What is the fixed price for certain goods sold to wholesalers who came from far and near to buy goods from the company? All these must be included in the plan made by the managers for achieving of his goal. It is the duty of the management to look at the position gain his company will make on monthly or weekly basis. This will make him to work hard and apply necessary tactics to see that the goals are achieved. Not only that, setting a target on the profit that the organization will be making within a particular period will make him expand his establishing by building more branches in different areas. Successful managers that their name echo around the world is because they made effective planning and followed them up. Management plans on the price to be fixed on products to maximize profit in the organization.


Organizing: It can be defined as the arrangement of organizational works or tasks into divisions, assigning responsibilities to workers, and allocation of resources. Organizing involves deciding on where, how and whom is to perform organizational duties effectively to bring out a tangible output in return.


It is the duty of the management to properly organize the workplace by placing eligible functions on eligible employees. By organizing, management should not assign any employee for any particular duty because they are into close relationship with each other. Those which are qualified and can give good result when placed in that organization are to be assigned that particular division. Placing workers that are not supposed in a particular office can disorder the arrangement of the organization.

It is the function of every management to allocate resources in organization he oversees. He has to develop effective strategy for the company to grow from time to time. If it is a company that markets books for instance, it is the duty of the management to think of how to make more sales by adopting good strategy. He can take a bold step like meeting top businessmen and women that deal on books. Also, he can decide to advertise the products maybe through the media and the internet depending on the method he wants to apply.


Directing: One of the major functions of management is to guide the affairs of the organization. It is his function to advice the workers on what to do, how to do them, and when best to do them. There is every probability that an organization will fold if the manager does not direct the employees well on what to do and not to be done in an office. If you as a manager does not know how to direct the affairs of your organization, you are automatically a bad manager.


An example is directing workers on the attitudes to portray towards their customers. He has to inform the workers to always show listening ears to any that visit the company irrespective of the visitors ‘size’ or status in the society. He is to instruct them on good approach toward costumers which can help build strong partnership with the costumers.


Directing in management’s function involves motivating all the workers to work for the interest of the organization. He gives reasons to the workers on the need to put in their best for the growth of the organization. Management sometimes promise to give incentives and promotions to those that perform exceptionally well all in the name of directing.


Controlling: It is the process of measuring performance, comparing it with objectives and making any necessary adjustments in an organization. It is monitoring progress toward goals achievements and taking possible measures when things are not going well in an organization. It is the function of the managements to examine organizations regularly to know if the organization is really meeting up with their goals or not.


When an organization is not meeting up with the standard expected, the manager is to take control by introducing the important techniques he feels can make the company accelerate and achieve expected goals required of it. Failure to properly control the affairs of an organization can result to its downfall. Management can introduce or use advert campaign to take control of the organization and help achieve expected goal.

Conclusion

In every standard company, there are principal functions that the management should perform. Whether good or bad, managements are to take care of their responsibilities. If a man does not take good care of his family, the family will surely collapse as they will face many challenges. If the man thought the wife can take good care of the family when she does not have good job, the whole family will be messed up.


This page is on the basic functions of the management of every business establishment or organization. There are many functions written by many authors and scholars, but all in totality centers on four important functions. The four as given on this write-up is planning, organizing, directing and controlling. All managers are to adhere by these four to experience increase in their organization.


References

  • Principles and Practice of Management by Vincent O
  • Small-Scale Business Management by Ojemba Gabriel

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