Spanish Lesson Fifty: Master Review (Parts of Speech)
It's so nice to have you here for this wonderful celebration. This is my 50th lesson!! I can't believe I've written so many of them. I want to thank everyone who has been a part of this journey and who has read a bulk, if not all of my lessons. I draw upon passion to write these lessons every week. I am so excited to reach this new milestone. Also as of May 31, 2013, I have been a part of HubPages for one year. Two milestones! So today I want to review the Seven Parts of Speech (Excluding Verbs) and their usage in the Spanish language. This will be part one of a two part review. Lesson Fifty-Two will introduce the last of the Seven Simple Tenses. So be prepared for that.
Today's lesson will not be a traditional one. There will be no vocabulary, warm-up, quiz, or homework assignment. This will be a complete and thorough review of past lessons. So pay attention! Thanks for reading and enjoy!
Today's Goal: To review parts of speech in Spanish. To be able to recall knowledge from previous lessons.
Un (A or An)
Una (A or An)
So do you guys remember everything there is about nouns? Well if you remember your Schoolhouse Rock, nouns are people, places, and things. That means any object, place, or person can be called a noun. Now if you remember, all nouns in Spanish have a gender. They can be either masculine or feminine. The gender determines the article that is placed in front of it.
El Libro. The Book. El is the masculine article that describes a masculine word like libro. It's safe to say that all nouns ending in -O are masculine. There are other nouns that end in -E, -A, -OR, etc that can be determined as a masculine noun.
La Leche. The Milk. La is the feminine article that describes a feminine word like leche. Note that leche ends with an -E. Sometimes that happens. Though it's safe to say that verbs that end in -A, -Sion, -Cion, and -Dad are all feminine. Just like other nouns, there are exceptions.
El Mañana. The Morning. Note that despite the ending, this word is considered masculine. The same could be said about Día (The day)
Now, let me tell you another thing. Nouns that represent a person or animal that can be masculine or feminine will change to match the subject.
El Chico. The Boy.
La Chica. The Girl.
Do you see it? Chico means boy, but Chica means girl. The word itself changes gender to match the subject. With it, the article changes as well. To review singular and plural forms of articles, refer to the tables on the right. Here are examples using the same words above.
El Libro. The Book.
Los Libros. The Books. You'll have to add an -S to make the word plural just like in English. Sometimes you'll have to add an -ES depending on the word.
La Chica. The Girl.
Las Chicas. The Girls.
Un Libro. A Book.
Unos Libros. Some books. Unos and Unas mean virtually "some".
Una Chica. A Girl.
Unas Chicas. Some Girls.
For more information on this subject, check out Lesson Six.
Them (Mas.)/Them (Fem.)/You All (Formal)
Spanish pronouns are very simple because they do not change in anyway. They follow the same meaning throughout. There is however a difference between the third person forms of the pronouns that I will explain further. For now, let's stick with the simple stuff.
Tú. You (Familar)
Él/Ella/Usted. He/She/ You (Formal)
Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes. They (Masculine)/They (Feminine)/You All (Formal)
There's one word I did not put here which is Nosotras which refers to "we" but only if the entire group is feminine. Since I'm a guy, I've never used it. Nosotros and Ellos can be used for all masculine groups or groups of mixed genders. Masculine always overrides a mixed group. The same goes for nouns as well. Now your question about Formal Vs. Familiar. Think of formal for people you respect like teachers, parents, adults to whom you look up to. Use those forms in those cases. Familiar is used with everyone else like friends, siblings, etc.
Adjectives are essential to everyday language. They describe people, places, things, and ideas that we discuss on a daily basis. Every person knows this about an adjective. Like nouns, adjectives follow a gender and also reflect the number of the subject it's referring to. Adjectives are pretty easy. All you have to do is have a decent list of adjectives and know how to contort the word to match the gender and number of the subject. Take a look at these examples.
Somos listos. We are smart. Note several things such as the verb form somos. That form indicates "we" so you know that subject is plural. Add an -S to listo (which means smart) to make it plural. Think of like our Subject-Verb Agreement. Remember that? If the group is feminine.
Somos listas. We are smart. We changed listo to lista which is the feminine form of this adjective. Change the -O to an -A to make it feminine for adjectives that follow this particular theme.
Ella es lista. She is smart.
Él es listo. He is smart. See it? The adjectives change to reflect the gender and number of the word its modifying. Make sure you follow gender with your adjectives as well as number. Let's try another example.
Las chicas son populares. The Girls are popular.
Los chicos son populares. The Boys are popular. Sometimes some adjectives don't change in response to the subject. They will always change because of the number, however. You'll have to research the individual word to get an idea, so always check on that. For more review, check out the links provided at the end of the review.
Adverbs describe a plethora of things. They can modify an verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Remember that adverbs can be made from other words and generally have the same sort of endings. Adverbs can answer When, Where, How, How Much, How Many, How Often, and To What Extent. Check out the chart on the right. If you'll notice the first two adverbs have -Mente at the end of it. If a word has that ending it means it is an adverb with the equivalent to -Ly ending. So any time you see that, take note. There are also other adverbs that are stand alone just like words in English.
Usualmente escribe libros. Usually I write books. Adverbs are placed in the same places as their English counterparts. The structure is about the same.
A veces leo libros. Sometimes (At times) I read books.
You can also form adverbs adding -Mente to some adjectives. Take the adjective Rápido. The word means rapid. Add the ending -Mente to the that word, but change the -O to an -A to make the word flow better. This will been needed on occasion.
Rápidamente. Rapidly. You can also use conjunction con (with) to connect it with an adjective for the same effect as adding -Mente to the ending of an adjective. For more information, refer to the links below.
The standard English conjunctions are and, but, and or. I'm going to teach you those as well as other. So pay very close attention to these conjunctions. They connect the words of your sentence perfectly and are definitely needed in Spanish just as much as in English. If you know anything about conjunctions, they link your sentence together like a chain so they keep everything sounding right.
Manuel y yo comimos.Manuel and I eat.
Manuel quiere comer pero no tiene hambre. Manuel wants to eat but he isn't hungry.
You see how simple those words fit into the sentences. Now there are some exclusions. So the word "Y" means and is pronounced like the letter "E". You can't have to "E" sounds back to back in Spanish so you'll change that "Y" to an "E". That's the only time you'll need to do that.
Necesito agua y hielo. Did you hear that double "E" sound back to back. Yeah that's wrong. It should be...
Necesito agua e hielo. With the word "O" meaning "or" you can't have two "O" sounds back to back.
Puedo tocar mi boca o orejas. Nope... wrong.
Puedo tocar mi boca u orejas. Get it?
Well there's a lot more to learn about Spanish conjunctions. If you want to review further, check out Lesson Twelve.
So we're at the end of this review. If you hadn't noticed, I used pictures from Schoolhouse Rock. There's nothing more exciting than watching those videos as a child. They really helped me get my parts of speech down packed. Now we are here at prepositions. Finally, at the end, right? It's been a long review. So let's keep going.
With prepositions it's pretty standard I suppose. Well there is that battle between Por Vs Para. I won't elaborate on them right now. I do invite you to review those concepts from one of my previous lessons. Anyway, Por is exclusively used to say on. Like in this sentence.
Manuel habla por el telefono. Manuel talks on the phone. Also look at other words like con, en, and a which pretty much mean what they say. They can be combined with other words to form new expressions, but that's for another day. I appreciate your patience and reading this MASTER review. It probably took a while to sift through the material.
If you want to know more about prepositions in Spanish, and especially Por Vs. Para, check out Lesson Eleven.
Oh! Next week we'll be discussing the Seven Simple Tenses of Spanish verbs in Spanish. I've already taught you six, so we'll go over those. Lesson Fifty-One will introduce the final simple tense. So check out Master Review (Verb Tenses) next week. So long!