ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Temperature Units

Updated on September 29, 2010

What is temperature?

Temperature is a measure of average heat of the thing. Average heat is the degree of hotness or coldness of that object.

For example the temperature of human body, temperature of boiled water, etc.

The common notions of temperature is hot and cold. If we hold ice, we sense cold; it means the ice has lower temperature with our body.

From physic concept, temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules. Each time molecule moves there will a kinetic energy. Hot means molecules move faster so the kinetic energy is increasing. Cold means molecules move slower so the kinetic energy is decreasing.

Temperature Unit

Temperature unit is a unit of measurement of temperature. The basic unit of SI (International Standard) is Kelvin (K). Kelvin unit is referenced the absence of thermal energy or absolute zero. Absolute zero is defined as Zero degree Kelvin (0K). 0K means it has no thermal energy at all.

There are many other temperature units like Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Reamur. Fahrenheit commonly used for temperature measurement in US. Celsius is used almost in every countries except US.

Celcius Scale
Celcius Scale


Celsius temperature scale is used for practically all purposes almost in every countries throughout the world. This scale was devised by the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius

Celsius related to the temperature of water. Zero Degree Celsius (0 °C) corresponds to the temperature of water freezes. 100 °C corresponds to boiling point of water at sea level under normal atmospheric pressure.

Based on International Standard, Celsius is defined by these two points:

  • The triple point of water is defined as 0.01 oC.
  • One degree Celsius equals the change of temperature with one degree on the ideal gas-scale.

0 K (Absolute zero) is defined as being precisely as -273.15 °C. The temperature value of the triple point of water is defined as being precisely 0.01 °C. It means:
-273.15 °C = 0 K
0 °C = 273.15 K


Although Celsius has been replaced this scale in most countries. Some countries still use this scale. Fahrenheit is widely used in US and Belize. This scale is devised by Daniel Fahrenheit.

The zero point is determined by placing the thermometer in brine (a mixture of ice, water, and ammonium chloride, a salt). At standard atmospheric pressure, the freezing point of water is 32 °F and the boiling point 212 °F.

The absolute zero (0 K) is -459.67 °F

Temperature Conversion Formula


[°C] = ([°F] - 32) × 5/9
[°C] = [K] - 273.15


[°F] = [°C] × 9/5 + 32
[°F] = [K] × 9/5 - 459.67


[K] = [°C] + 273.15
[K] = ([°F] + 459.67) × 5/9

Temperature Conversion Table

Conversion to SI units
degree Celsius
C = K - 273.15
[K] = [°C] + 273.15
degree Delisle
[K] = 373.15 - [°De] x 2/3
degree Fahrenheit
F = °C x 9/5 + 32
[K] = ([°F] + 459.67) x 5/9
degree Newton
[K] = [°N] x 100/33 + 273.15
degree Rankine
R; °Ra
R = K x 9/5
[K] = [°R] x 5/9
degree Réaumur
[K] = [°Ré] x 5/4 + 273.15
degree Rømer
[K] = ([°Rø] - 7.5) x 40/21 + 273.15
kelvin (SI base unit)
= 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.
= 1 K

Common temperatures

Absolute zero
0 K
-273.15 °C
-459.67 °F
Temperature of Liquid Nitrogen
77.4 K
-195.8 °C
-302.4 °F
Temperature of dry ice
195.1 K
-78 °C
-108.4 °F
Melting point of ice (approximate)
273.15 K
0 °C
32 °F
Waters triple point
273.16 K
0.01 °C
32.018 °F
Normal human body temperature
310.15 K
37.0 °C
98.6 °F
Waters boiling point at 1 atm (101.325 kPa)
373.1339 K
99.9839 °C
211.9710 °F


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      Bill 6 years ago

      use this formula instead

      F to C ((Tf + 40)*5/9) -40 = Tc

      C to F ((Tc + 40)*9/5) -40 = Tf

      these two measurement scales have different distances between the boiling and freezing points of water. These two scales are not parallel and intersect at -40.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: ""

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)