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Why did the Gallipoli Campaign fail?
The Gallipoli campaign failed due to numerous reasons, such as, poor maps supplied, less resources, diseases and the Turkish having a home advantage. The Turkish were also not surprised of the attack as earlier the British naval bombarded the coast. They were also well equipped with proper winter clothes and shelter from both the weather and enemy fire. The Turkish also had their resources nearby as they are defending their country whereas the ANZAC troops had to get there resources from their Egypt base.
The lack of intelligence on Turkish defensive positions led to inaccurate maps of the area supplied to the troops which led to confusion for the troops. Their trench lines were so close that they could lob a grenade easily. The poor terrain led to a lack of water which led to poor hygiene. This led to more diseases being spread and it was reported that there was more death by diseases then from the actual war happening. For every troop there was, there would have to be three nurses to take care of him, but that obviously wasn't the case. Dysentery was a common disease at the time. It was reported that every man needed about twenty litres of water per day but were only supplied with one or if you were lucky, two litres per day. So, all the soldiers were dehydrated in the harsh conditions.
Also the Turkish soldiers had higher morale as they were fighting for their country whereas the Allies were fighting for a cause they could not see clearly anymore. They also had a height advantage which gave them an easier time to sniper the allies out.
In the end, the lack of planning, knowledge about the terrain and the fighting conditions at Gallipoli led to the failure of the campaign.