Education is pretty much left solely to each individual state. The states are allowed to accept or reject any type of unified change (for example, some states are adopting and trying to implement a standard in assessment that is more detailed with about seven different types of assessment categories instead of about four). The Federal Government only has ways to suggest certain changes in education by dangling money and having states agree to it (such as the No Child Left Behind Act).
Because of the inconsistencies between the Federal, State, District, and Individual schools are so large, it will take a lot of effort to even get the the math and science scores to be higher. Besides, America does not put much stock in studying and instead, is worried about test scores (and thus teaches test-taking strategies. To be honest, I can sit down to take a general test on Physics right now, which I never studied in high school, and score at least a C- because I know how to take tests).
Getting good teachers into school systems are difficult as well. Those good teachers mostly want to go to school that have students from high socio-economic backgrounds and living in good neighborhoods. Those good teachers do not really want to teach inner-city schools where there are high amounts of non-English speaking students (which gets pushed to the side WAY too often), free or reduced lunch students, and students with a lot of behavioral problems.
Honestly, I do not think that the United States will ever get good math and science scores. And it's not just because there are many people who disagree with the Theory of Evolution.