Very good, Doc Snow, but, as a qualified geologist, I'll point you in the right direction on several areas:
1) Granite is a type of igneous rock and is not metamorphic. There are 2 categories of igneous rock: intrusive and extrusive. Extrusive includes those that, as you said, outflow onto the surface, such as basalts and rhyolites (these are types of lava). Intrusive rocks include those such as granite, diorite, microgranite, dolerite, and many, many more. Granite is a classic example of an intrusive rock. The crystals have cooled slowly due to the crystallisation process happening at a certain depth within the crust (plutonic depths = 50-100km). This is why you can clearly see the crystals on a granite specimen or kitchen worktop. Oh, there is no such thing as 'black granite' by the way, but that's another story!
2) There are different types of metamorphism too (all with varying grades). Here are the main ones:
Regional = affects larger areas but ranges from low to high temps and pressures
Thermal or contact = normally occurs adjacent to igneous intrusions (granite pluton!), so will affect a relatively smaller area. Temperature is high, but pressure is LOW.
Burial = High pressure but low temperature. This type can produce beautiful rocks such as eclogites and blueschists. Usually occurs at subduction zones (when a tectonic slab is subducted underneath another one at a collisional zone)
Dynamic = high intensity metamorphism that can occur at a meteorite impact. High pressure (but over VERY short period of time) and high temperature (again, over short time span).
Each type produces different suites of metamorphic rocks. The resultant rock is dependant upon the temperature and pressure combination, and also the 'parent' or original rock. I.e.: a limestone will produce a marble if under regional or thermal metamorphism. But a slate will eventually form a schist under regional metamorphism. An eclogite can form from some types of basalt at burial metamorphism zones.