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Intro to Anatomy 3 (BRAIN/NERVES)

Updated on July 6, 2014

An Introduction to Anatomy of the Human Body

This is a continuation of the "Introduction to Anatomy" series of websites I have created which address different areas of basic anatomy. This lens is looking at the nervous system and brain specifically. I will discuss the function, location, type and name of the cranial nerves as well as where cranial nerves leave the skull. I also describe the lobes of the brain and the function of each. I have also included a detailed diagram of the bracial plexius nerves.

It is a work in progress and will be updated with new material soon.


See my other lenses

-Anatomy Resources

-Intro to Anatomy (BONES)

-Intro to Anatomy (MUSCLES)

-Basic Medical Terminology

Thank you very much for your support!!!

Layers of the SKULL and MENINGES

-Skin (epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous) Layers of the skin

-Periosteum The covering that provides the innervation and blood supply to the bone.

-Bone Hard material that is designed to be protective and a structural framework.

-Dura Mater: Periosteal The outer layer that makes contact with the skull.

-Dura Mater: Meningeal The inner layer that makes up the outer sinus walls.

-Venous Sinuses This is where CSF joins deoxygenated blood to return to the heart.

-Arachnoid a thicker membrane layer.

-Arachnoid Space This space is filled with cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) which provides nutrients, waste disposal and shock absorption for the brain.

-Pia Mater (translates to "soft mother") This is the very thin membrane sack surrounding the brain.

BRAIN Lobes

Frontal Lobe (F): Center for higher functioning.

Parietal Lobe (P): Integration of Sensory input.

Temporal Lobe (T): Auditory and Speech Center.

Occipital Lobe (O): Visual processing Center.

Also shown in the picture above are the:

-Diencephalon (DE),

-Mesencephalon (ME),

-Pons,

-Medulla Oblongata,

-Cerebellum(C))

NERVE locations inside the skull

Cranial Nerves in Skull- Superior Aspect
Cranial Nerves in Skull- Superior Aspect

Here are the pathways for each cranial nerve to leave (and sometimes enter) the skull.

Cranial Nerves - Nerve Name, Nerve Type, Nerve Location and Nerve Function

* NOTES*

-S/M/B are the type of nerve (Sensory is S, Motor is M and Both is B)

-Trigeminal nerve splits into the Opthalamic (1), Maxillary (2) and Mandibular (3) branches

---Brain and Nerves Shop---

NERVES of the Brachial Plexus

NERVES of the Brachial Plexus
NERVES of the Brachial Plexus

1) Dorsalscapular: innervates the Rhomboids, Levator scapulea

2) Suprascapular: Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus

3) Subclavian: Subclavius

4) Lateral Pectoral: Pectoralis Major

5) Musculocutaneous: upper arm flexors (Biceps Brachii, Coracobrachialis, Brachialis)
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6) Upper Subscapular: Subscapularis

7) Thoracodorsal: Latissimus Dorsi

8) Lower subscapular: Subscapularis, Teres Minor

9) Radial: Posterior Arm/Forearm (Triceps, Anconeus, Brachioradialis, Supinator)

10) Axillary: Deltoids, Teres Minor

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11) Medial Pectoral:Pectoralis Major, Pectoralis Minor

12) Medial Brachial Cutaneous: sensory nerve of the skin

13) Ulnar: Flexor carpi ulnaris, frexor digitorum profundus, hand muscles
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14) Long Thoracic: (5,6,7 Serratus Anterior)

15) Phrenic: (3,4,5 keep the diaphram alive)

16) Median: Flexor carpi radialis, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus

1 - 5 : nerves spliting from the most superior and lateral continuous nerve

6 - 10: nerves spliting from the deepest and most center continuous nerve.

11 - 13: nerves spliting from the most inferior and medial continuous nerve

14 - 15: nerves spliting from multiple rami

16:The nerve that is formed form the most lateral and most medial continuous nerves

*CADAVER- Brachial Plexus Tutorial*

WARNING- A REAL HUMAN CADAVER IS USED FOR THIS DISSECTION. IF YOU ARE SQUEAMISH I SUGGEST NOT VIEWING THE VIDEO BELOW.





A dissection of the brachial plexus where each section is clearly described and shown on a human cadaver. A very helpful resource for locating the nerves of the brachial plexus.

The Cranial Nerves Song

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