Intro to Anatomy 2 (MUSCLES)
Introduction to Anatomy of the Human Body
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Cardiac Muscle: The muscles forming the heart, involuntary movement
Skeletal Muscle: Muscles which move the skeleton which can act voluntarily or involuntarily.
-Circular: A circular muscle with a hole such as orbicularis occuli
-Quadrate: create seperate bundles of muscle such as the rectus abdominis
-Flat: flat and parallel fibers such as the external obliques
-Fusiform: multiple ends but one base such as the biceps brachii
-Bi-/Uni-/Multi- Pennate: look like feather one, two or many such as the rectus femoris
Smooth Muscle: The lining of internal organs, involuntary movement.
So.. What is required for a muscle to produce movement
-A muscle must cross the joint that it moves.
-A muscle can only shorten or relax. Shortening brings both ends of the muscle closer together.
What movements can occur:
-Abduction/Adduction: Movement away or toward the longitudinal axis
-Circumduction: Circular motion which creates a cone like shape.
-Depression/Elevation: Movement to lower or raise a certain body part.
-Flexion/Extension: Movement to decrease/increase the angle of an appendage at the joint.
-Horizontal Abduction/Horizontal Adduction: The arm is at a 90 degree angle from the torso and the arm is brought away from or toward the body center.
-Lateral Rotation/ Medial Rotation: Rotation towards the side/middle of the body.
-Supination/pronation: Occurs in the forearm, twisting the hand so the palm is upward/downward.
---Study up on Muscles---
MUSCLES of the Shoulder and Upper Arm
Muscles that affect movement of the Scapula
-Pectoralis Major: (movement:Pulls anteriorly and inferiorly to the body wall.)
-Pectoralis Minor: (movement:Pulls anteriorly and inferiorly to the body wall.)
-Serratus anterior: (movement:Protracts, rotates and holds towards wall of body.)
-Trapezius: (movement:elevates, depresses and retracts)
-Rhomboid Major: (movement:retracts and stabilizes in place)
-Rhomboid Minor: (movement:retracts and stabilizes in place)
-Levator Scapulae: (movement:elevates, tilts and rotates)
Muscles that affect movement at the Glenohumeral Joint
-Deltoid (3 parts: clavicular, acromial and spinal)(movements: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction,etc...)
-Infraspinatus (movements: lateral rotation, stabilize glenohumeral joint)
-Latissimus Dorsi: (movement: extension, adduction, medial rotation)
-Pectoralis Major: (movement: Adduction, flesion, extension, and medial rotation)
-Supraspinatus (movements: some abduction, stabilize glenohumeral joint)
-Subscapularis (movements: helps to hold humerus in glenoid cavity, medial rotation)
-Teres Minor(movement: lateral rotation)
-Teres Major (movement: medial rotation, adduction)
Muscles of the Rotator Cuff (rotation of the glenohumeral joint)
-Subscapularis: medial rotation
-Suprascapularis: lateral rotation
-Infraspinatus: lateral rotation
-Teres Minor: lateral rotation
This is the work of someone studying for the anatomy mid-term. Pretty good idea unless it doesn't wash off before the test in which case it might look like cheating.
MUSCLE: Memorization Tips
Anterior Forearm Muscles
-Pro, Flex, Palm, Flex (thumb to medial epicondyle, four fingers to anterior forearm
-Pronator teres (pointer finger), Flexor carpi radialis (middle finger),
-Palmaris longus (ring finger), Flexor carpi ulnaris (pinky finger)
Read the damn cadaver book!!!
Rami, trunks, divisions, cords and branches
Branches of the Brachial Plexus
MR MAU (lateral to medial branches)
Musculocutaneous nerve, Radial nerve, Median nerve, Axillary nerve, Ulnar nerve
Pes Anserine Muscles
Say Grace Before Tea (all cause knee flexion)
---Easy Anatomy Study Aids---
MUSCLES of the elbow and forearm
Muscles that affect movement of the Elbow Joint
Muscles that cause pronation/supination of the forearm
Anatomy Songs and Visuals
General Anatomy Resources
- Get Body Smart
Great reference for muscles and bones.
- Body System Overview
Simple full body illustrations of each type of system (digestion, lymphatic, musculature, skeleton, etc..)
- Anatomy Picture Database
Free access to some anatomical pictures, more access with purchase.
- Another Anatomy Picture Database
More selection, many body systems
- Test your knowledge
Many ways to test your knowledge of anatomy structures
- Anatomy Details
Nice detailed overview of bones, joints and skeletal muscles
- Anatomy Word of the Day
A new word to learn and understand in anatomy each day.
- Overview of Anatomy Systems
A very detailed overview of different systems (included but not limited to digestive system, spinal column, arteries, veins, etc...)