ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

A Scientific Guess to Verify in Stem Cell Research that leads to Stem Cell Therapy

Updated on December 19, 2013

More stem cell research for more stem cell therapy

A layman like me has several questions about stem cells.

One question I would like answered is: " Is a human stem cell polarized?" More specifically, is a totipotent stem cell polarized?

Polarization of stem cells

What I mean by polarized is as follows. Given a stem cell with genes A B.... C D. Of course, we know that the human genome is composed of 3 trillion genes. The dots indicate polarization. In our present discussion A B ....C D indicate the genes that are activated in the totipotent stem cells. This is only for graphic representation because it is impracticable to indicate all the genes in this space. At this stage not all 3 trillion genes are activated. If this totipotent stem cell were polarized, A B genes take care of mitosis, or cell division that result in the same kind. That is, A B result in two daughter cells each with the genes A B. Then genes C D differentiate. During differentiation, other genes are activated, thus a pluripotent stem cell is produced, indicated as A B C D ....E F. Likewise, A B C D genes now take care of mitosis resulting in two identical daughter cells. Now E F differentiate that result in the multipotent stem cell indicated as A B C D E F ....G H. Likewise A B C D E F gene take care of mitosis resulting in two identical daughter cells. It goes without saying that the C D E F that were once activated to cause differentiation no longer cause differentiation. They are now part of a mitotic cell.

The same process occurs until the stage adult stem cell is reached, A B C D E F G H....I J. I J genes will cause differentiation resulting in adult cells with genes A B C D E F G H I J. Once they have reached this stage, they will have formed a human being. To repeat, a human being has stem cells and adult cells. However, no additional stem cells that cause further differentiation are activated. Take note of the difference between adult stem cells and adult cells that are specialized.

(I will write another Hub to give a graphic representation of adult cell reprogramming. That is, adult cells are turned back, as it were, to produce pluripotent stem cells. This was done by Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka who shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine.]

Verification of hypothesis

My literature research on stem cell might be so lacking that I have not found an answer to my own question. That is why I like to derive from this question a hypothesis to serve as guide in stem cell research. A derived hypothesis is as follows:

“A totipotent stem cell is polarized such that genes in one end behave differently from how genes in another end behave.”

This totipotent stem cell is indicated as A B .... C D such that C D are genes that cause differentiation.

This hypothesis can be tested in the laboratory.

Make a totipotent stem cell. This is done by getting sperm cells and an egg cell. Place the egg cell in a disc. Put the viable sperms inside the disc containing the egg.

We are describing the procedure in simple layman terms. The experiment is much more complicated.

Once one sperm had fertilized the egg a totipotent stem cell results. We call this zygote. This zygote can produce at least two totipotent stem cells. Separate one from the other and place them in separate discs. Mark one disc as alpha, the other as beta. Put a trace isotope in disc alpha. Do not put any trace isotope in disc beta. The trace isotope in disc alpha makes the genes phosphorescent green.

Allow the mixture in disc alpha to grow into the embryo stage which is now in the pluritpotent stem cell stage. Allow the mixture in disc beta to grow into the embryo stage which likewise fall in the pluripotent stem cell stage.

Then put the embryonic stem cells in disc alpha and disc beta into one disc labeled gamma.

The pluripotent stem cells develop into the multipotent stem cells shown by the increase in the number of stem cells in disc gamma compared with the total of those found in disc alpha and disc beta.

An increase in the number of green phosphorescent stem cells shows that the totipoent stem cells are polarized.

I am sure there other ways of verifying the polarization of totipotent stem cell.

This polarization leads to an explanation of differentiation.

From polarization to stem cell therapy

Polarization gives an opportunity to develop therapeutic applications of stem cells.

We can trace damage done on each stage of stem cells. Or we can induce damage in each stage and trace how this damage is carried over to the adult stem cell.

We cannot produce adult cells in disc according to design and integrity. (I have a Hub "How one stem cell turns into a human being").That would be tantamount to cloning. Besides, earlier stem cell researches have shown that the culture of stem cells, outside the womb, does not graduate into a human being.

The most likely outcome of such an experiment to produce a human being is teratoma. A teratoma consists of tissues of germinal organs, like teeth, hair among others.

How to induce damage? For example, take multipotent stem cells usually found in bone morrow. Bombard them with nitric oxide produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase, indicated as NO/iNOS. This is a free radical that is mediated by the macrophage, a component of the immune system.

NO/iNOS causes aberrations in chromosomes like shortening, thickening, deletion, among others. These could be seen the optical microscope.

Some multipotent stem cells will not graduate into the next stage that is the unipotent stem cell. The reason is that chromosomes with aberration cannot assemble proteins to make new cells.

With this observation comes the conclusion that free radicals mutate DNA, the heredity material in chromosomes.

Mutation in DNA most likely results in tumor or cancer

To prevent such mutation, counter the free radicals. That is one therapeutic application of knowledge on the polarization of stem cells. We now have several means of countering free radicals like the consumption of food that contain antioxidants. Antioxidants catch or neutralize free radicals. Vitamins A, C and E are antioxidants. So are melatonin and coenzyme Q10. Chelation therapy counters free radicals and their derivatives.

Another benefit that can be derived from this experiment is that stem cells for use in stem cell therapy should be free of damage. Damage can result in fast aging.

Presently only mitotic cells are known to develop mutation that result in tumor or cancer. it is said that one mitotic cell starts tumor or cancer. A tumor that had breached the cell matrix that confines it may graduate into cancer by uncontrolled growth in place or spreading to other parts of the body. .

There must be a way to detect mutation in polarized stem cells especially those genes responsible for differentiation. These will eventually give rise to mitotic cells that may turn into tumor or cancer. Such mutated stem cells must be eliminated.

Comments

Submit a Comment

No comments yet.

working

This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

Show Details
Necessary
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Features
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Marketing
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Statistics
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)