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Diabetes and Its Types

Updated on July 1, 2014


Incidence of diabetes is on the rise and this deadly chronic disease condition is taking everyone in its grip. It has been estimated that in the year 2013, as high as 382 million individuals suffered from diabetes. Based on the current trend, it has been calculated that by the year 2035, about 592 million individuals will suffer from diabetes. And I will not be exaggerating if I say that, in the near future almost all individuals will suffer from diabetes.

Diabetes Symbol

Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes.
Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes. | Source

What is Diabetes

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood sugar levels. Increase in the levels of circulating glucose in the blood is either due to improper functioning of the pancreas or failure of the cells to respond to the insulin produced. All these factors predispose an individual to develop diabetes.

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Symptoms of Diabetes

Individuals with diabetes will experience frequent urination, increased thirst, and or increased hunger. These symptoms and many more signal towards the onset of diabetes. Other symptoms of this disorder include unexplained weight loss, high blood pressure, sores or wounds that take more than usual time to heal, excretion of ketone bodies in the urine, undue fatigue and recurrent infections. It needs to be mentioned that, individuals with diabetes should be cautious about their disease profile and should take all necessary precautions as told to them.


Diabetes if not treated in time can call for development of various secondary complications. It is therefore advised that individuals should be watchful of the signs and symptoms and should consult their doctor immediately in case they experience any kind of discomfort. Once an individual is diagnosed with diabetes, it is important to regularly keep track of their blood glucose levels. This is so because; a sudden spike in the blood sugar levels can call for an emergency. It is thus best to be forewarned and take necessary precautions to avoid any unforeseen complications.

Diabetes is of 3 major types –

  • type 1 (Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus),
  • type 2 (non- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) and
  • gestational diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes was formerly also referred to as juvenile diabetes. In this type, the pancreas does not produce insulin, resulting in increased levels of glucose in the circulation. In type 2 diabetes, the body cells are unable to utilize the insulin produced by the pancreas. Gestational diabetes occurs only during pregnancy and usually gets corrected soon after the birth of the baby.

Diabetic Day Food Chart

Food group
Amount of carb/ serving
15 grams
5 grams
15 grams
0 grams
0 grams
12 grams

Treatment of diabetes

Diabetes cannot be cured. It can be treated with an appropriate treatment regime. Treatment of diabetes should involve an integrated approach of medications along with an active lifestyle. Medications to a great extent help control the blood sugar levels and also avoids the onset of secondary complications. However, medications alone may not suffice, and individuals would need to do all possible efforts to stay healthy and lead an active life. An active lifestyle would help gain a better control over blood sugar levels. It is also advised that along with medications and physical activity, patients should also take note of their dietary habits. Small and frequent meals should be the focus for all diabetics. It also needs to be understood that, nutritional needs would be different for all diabetics and everyone should work up a personalized dietary plan with the help of their doctors.

What is Type 1 Diabetes


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    • Chuck Bluestein profile image

      Chuck Bluestein 3 years ago from Morristown, AZ, USA

      Gestational diabetes can be prevented by not getting pregnant. That is easy enough to understand. How do you prevent scurvy that has killed over a million people? Get enough vitamin C. How do you prevent rickets? By getting enough vitamin D.

      How do you prevent type 1 diabetes? The pregnant mother and baby need to get enough vitamin D that can come from the sun of God or God's sun. If they do not get enough vitamin D than the islets of Langerhans are destroyed and the body cannot produce insulin.

      Type 2 diabetes helps to prevent obesity. It is the body's defense against a person that is eating too much and not getting enough exercise.