ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Prevention Of Tetanus (Lockjaw) And A Review On Other Clostridial Diseases

Updated on March 24, 2014

Antitetanus Vaccine Administered On A Child


Prevention Of Tetanus

Tetanus is an easily preventable disease. Clinical tetanus does not confer immunity and therefore the patient should be actively immunized when he recovers. Three subcutaneous injections of adsorbed toxoid in a dose of 0.5ml at monthly intervals produces lasting immunity. As a part of the total immunization program for children, the first dose may be given as the DPT vaccine at the fourth month of life and two further doses at monthly intervals. If the full course of DPT vaccine is given, the child gets life-long immunity. Boosters are needed once every 5 to 10 years. When severe injuries are sustained, one dose of 0.5ml ot toxoid may be given as a precautionary measure. Passive immunization can be achieved in non-immunised subjects by the administration of 250 IU of TIG or 3000 IU of ATS after test does. The immunity lasts for about two weeks. Passive immunization is given along with a booster does of toxoid in separate syringes at different sites to non-immunised individuals who sustain injury. Active immunization of pregnant women ensures adequate antibodies in the neonate and prevents tetanus neonatorum. Primary care of the wound like surgical toilet and penicillin therapy considerable reduce the risk of tetanus.

Tetanus Manifestations


Gas Gangrene (Clostridial Myonecrosis)

This disease is caused by several clostridia which grow symbolically with a mixed bacterial flora. The main pathogens are Clostridium welchii (60%), C. edematiens, C. septicum (20 to 40%) and rarely C. histolyticum.

Pathogenesis: Necrosis of tissue brought about by anoxia, ischemia or injury is complicated by clostridial infection which may be exogenous (introduced along with the wounds) or endogenous (derived from the intestinal tract). The organisms multiple locally and produce toxins which diffuse out and lead to generalized toxemia. The affected tissues are avascular and appear as if cooked.

Clinical features: After an incubation period of 1 to 4 days, the wound becomes swollen and tender and exudes brownish foul-smelling fluid. Due to the presence of gas, crepitus may be felt. Blebs filled with purplish foul-smelling fluid develop. These blebes reputure and ulcerate. General symptoms such as restlessness and fever develop and the patient may rapidly go into shock and anuria.

Diagnosis: The condition has to be diagnosed clinically. The organism can be identified by culture. X-ray of the affected part shows gas in the tissues. Gas in the tissues may occur in other conditions such as surgical emphysema and infections by streptococcal, staphylococci and E.Coli.

Treatment: Early institution of therapy is most important for success. Shock is treated on the lines of septic shock. Penicillin which is the drug of choice is given intravenously in a dose of 2 mega units, 2-hourly. Other antibiotics may be tried depending on the sensitivity tests. Antitoxin is available for intravenous used (anti-gas gangrene serum- AGGS). It should be given in a dose of 40,000 units initially to be followed by 20,000 to 40,000 units repeatedly till the condition improves. Keeping the patient under hyperbaric oxygen (3 atmosphere pressure) remarkably improves the result of therapy and this should be instituted wherever it is available. Surgical excision of dead tissue and removal of foreign bodies should be undertaken after administration of AGGS. Gas gangrene can be prevented by taking proper care of the wound and early recognition of the condition.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)