Introduction Of The Parliamentary Government In India
India,Ireland Imitates England
The administration in England represents an ideal instance for parliamentary government. England is called the motherland of parliamentary government. Many countries imitates the administrative structure of England. India and Ireland are most prominent countries to resemble the English Administration. India forms a federal administrative structure .There is a central Government body which holds the supreme power to implement and regulate statutes, laws, rules etc over all bodies. But there are so many states with a similar administrative structure like the structure of the central government .
Constitution of India
The President or the Constitutional Head
Head of the administration: The head of the central government is called the president or the Rashtropoti who is in reality an idol in the hands of the council of ministers. The president of India is elected by the people of India indirectly through the process of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. Chapters 54 and 55 are about this process. Indian President is the constitutional or nominal principal but the actual or real or working head is Prime Minister with his council of ministers including himself. President is the head of the state, he is not the chief of government. He needs to obtain approval and advice from council of ministers for implementing his decision and power. According to 42amendment in 1976, it says that the President will do his duties according to the advice of the council of ministers.44 Amendment of 1978 says that the President may return the proposal of the council of ministers for reconsideration, but if the council keep the advice unchangeable the president is to take it as final decision and must have worked accordingly. He is given all the power legally.53(1) of constitution says, ”The Executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution.” The post of the President of India is similar to that of the post of the King or Queen of England. Dr. Ambedkar says,” … the President occupies the same position as the King under the English Constitution .”
Council of Ministers
Council of Ministers : 74(1) says ,” There shall be a council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President who shall in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice.”The 42 amendment affirms this statement and makes the President to act under the advice of the council of ministers .Thus the decisions undertaken by the council of ministers are taken as the instructions of the government and these are the final steps or orders from the administration. This council of ministers is formed from the ruling party or from the members of a party which has gained majority in the election and is going to form or has formed the government. There is a leader in this council. He is the Prime Minister. This is to state that the responsibility lies on everybody of the council for the failure or the success for a decision. No one person is to be blamed for failure. No one person is to be given the attribution for success. It is a team work of which the Prime Minister is the leader and the President is the nominal or constitutional chief .75(3) says ,”The Council of Minister shall be collectively responsible to the House of the People.”
Atal Bihari Bajpeyi
The Prime Minister
The Prime Minister:75 of Constitution says, “The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President and the other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.”The leader of winning party with majority is summoned by the President to be the Prime Minister of India. The President may appoint the Prime Minister before a party gets majority. He then says the PM to prove the majority within a reasonable time.The Prime Ministers like Charan Sing in 1979, V.P. Sing in 1989, Chandra Shekhar in 1990,Narasimha Rao in 1991, Atal Bihari Bajpeyi in 1996 and in 1998, H.D. Devgoura in 1996, I.K. Gujral in 1997 were appointed in this manner.Thus the Prime Minister is the chief of the administration in reality. The government becomes a Prime Ministerial Government.
A Federal Structure
State : There so many states within the state.The state has its own Chief Minister as the administrative head with the help of a council of ministers.A state has a Governor as the constitutional chief of the state.Thus the state and the centre follow the same pattern for administrating government.There is another pillar in Indian administration which is judicial one.This is fully free from any kind of pressure to give the people of India apt,correct,just and righteous right
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