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The Killing Fields Today: Aki Ra Land Mines In Cambodia 33 Years After Khmer Rouge Regime

Updated on February 13, 2012

Watch "The Killing Fields" Movie!

Sinn Sisamouth: Original Recording in 1962

The Killing Fields

Have you ever hear of the "Killing Fields"? This is a reference to the horrible atrocities that occurred in the small Southeast Asian country of Cambodia between 1975-1979. At least 1/3 of Cambodia's population was killed by the regime, somewhere between 1 and 3 million people!

This was a Holocaust in itself and there were no records of the deceased and therefore, no official number of the murders. The regime targeted Monasteries, Business People, and even closed Factories, Hospitals, Schools and Banks: anyone, or anything that involved intelligence or financial prosperity.

The goal of the regime was to eliminate most of the people in the small Southeast Asian country and turn it into a slave-labor agrarian society where the occupants would be forced to produce crops for the ruling minority. If you have never heard of this genocide you should watch the 1984 movie staring Sam Waterston (Law and Order) as it depicts the situation very honestly.

I first learned about this horrible chapter of history when I met my wife who was lucky enough to be given a choice to live on a refuge camp during this time. She was lucky to survive as families were often separated and people were executed at random. Anyone who was intelligent was killed especially artists, musicians and business people. The regime wanted people who were unarmed and poor to do their dirty work so they could profit. Perhaps the most well known Cambodian singer Sinn Sisamouth was killed by the regime because he was considered a threat. Perhaps it was because he had a great following and a voice that people listened to. For whatever reason, you can listen to the haunting song "Champa Battambong" which he wrote in 1962 for his wife in the YouTube video to the right. (The automated video that is playing in the background is a cover of the same song) It is very chilling to hear his voice and know his demise. It is a love song about his love for his wife and his homeland.

Land Mine Deaths Around the World: Top 4 Highest Civilian Death Toll

Number of Deaths by Land Mine (1999-2010)
Cambodia (Srok Khmer)

After The Killing...

It's now 2012, some 33 years after the Khmer Rouge Regime began. In their short 4 year killing spree, the regime planted thousands of land mines that still claim many lives each year. There are campaigns and work forces still trying to eradicate the mines and they have been very successful. There is still a lot of work to go to locate and dismantle/disarm the land mines. Cambodia has the third highest amount of land mines and yet, is one of the smallest and least populated countries in the world. Each year many people, including woman and children lose legs and lives performing simple every day activities such as looking for wood to make cooking fires or farmers working the fields. When will it end? On a personal note, my wife has personally lost a few family members due to this serious landmine problem.

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Are You Aware of the Landmine Problem Plaguing Many Parts of the World?

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What Happens When People Survive a Landmine Explosion?

Often times people survive these horrific explosions only to be physically and socially maimed for the rest of their life. Since there is no healthcare in most regions where landmines are stalking, many people die from infections. Those that are able to seek medical help are usually left with major physical disabilities, the most often result is loss of limb.

When someone loses a limb in Cambodia, they are often ostracized and looked down on. They are made fun of and publicly humiliated and their chances of finding work are very slim. In a country that has very few ways to make a living, being the victim of a land mine explosion can be a death sentence in itself. Many of these victim survivors turn to begging and panhandling just to be able to eat and survive.

The Mine Ban Treaty

The Mine Band Treaty (MBT) was introduced in1997 and signed in Ottawa, Canada. This Act outlaws the Production, Manufacturing, Use of, Sale of, or Transportation of Landmines.

  • 157 Countries have signed the treaty.
  • 39 Countries have refused to sign.
  • China, Russia, North Korea and the United States are among the countries that won't sign the treaty.
  • The US has not produced mines since 1997
  • The US has not exported mines since 1992
  • The US has not used landmines since 1991 (anti-personnel mines)
  • The United States has a stockpile of about 10 Million landmines

Angkor Wat Temple


Economical Impact of Mine-Filled Countries

Besides the human tragedy associated with the landmine crisis, there is an economic aspect to the problem. One of the reasons Cambodia is such a poor "Third World Country" is directly related to the landmine crisis. Over 60% of Cambodians are farmers. Because of the tropical weather and climate, there is only so much this little country can produce. Rice and Mangoes and other fruits are the main source for international trade in the world market. Since many farm fields and trade routes are mined, farmers are literally blowing up in their own back yards. Many farmers are just too scared (or smart enough) not to farm their lands.

On a better note, many of the deminers are volunteers but some are able to get paid through government grants. The average deminer makes anywhere from $160 to $250 per month which is a very good income in Cambodia. Most deminers don't do it for the money. They do it because they have personally been effected in one way or another by this problem and have hope and vision for the future generations of Cambodia.

Angkor Wat is one of the most desired travel destinations in the world. It is filled with huge ancient temples and is truly a beautiful place. (See pictures to the right) Cambodia is finally coming out of the depths of poverty. The economy is growing now that the mines are being removed. For example, in 1999 (which was the first "peace" year without war in Cambodia) the Gross National Income (GNI) for Cambodia was $10 billion and the Per Capita Annual Income (PCAI) of $820. In 2010, the GNI rose to $29 billion and the PCAI rose to an average of $2,040. It is easy to see the increase in economy as the mines are being removed.

The Cambodian government estimates that the entire country will be "totally" rid of the landmines in approximately 10 or more years. The average annual landmine clearing is around 23-31 square miles per year. Since 1999 when the cleanup began, more than 270 square miles have been demined. There is still approximately 250 or so square miles to go. This is a tedious and lengthy process.

Landmine Removal Efforts

  • The Cambodian Self Help Demining Team is largely funded by the US
  • Major Landmine Fields have been mapped out and are being systematically demined one at a time.
  • The Landmine Relief Fund was created by American couple Bill and Jill Morse and hosts an orphanage for victims of landmines.
  • The US has given Cambodia over $80 million towards the removal of the mines since 1993.

What's Being Done Today to Resolve the Land Mine Problem?

Although most people avoid the jungle areas and fields that have warning signs of dangerous land mines, there are some individuals who risk their life every day trying to eradicate this problem. The government does have a group of specialists trying to locate and disarm these sneaky agents of death and dismemberment, but there are civilians working just as hard as well.

One of these civilians is Aki Ra. Aki Ra is the founder of the Cambodian Landmine Museum. When he was a young boy he was taken from his family and forced to plant many land mines in the Cambodian landscape or face death; the Khmer Rouge did not give him a choice. Ever since the regime was ousted, his life goal has been to find and dismantle landmines in the region. To date, Aki Ra has personally defused over 50,000 explosive devices! Aki Ra is a real living hero! Cambodia has become a leader in the removal of these deadly hidden killers. Land Mines are like underground snipers, waiting to pick out their kill!

  • In Bour Village, a small settlement in Battambang Province, more than 1,600 landmines have successfully been removed thanks to people like Hun Krat.
  • Aki Ra is the master at removing these landmines in Northwestern Cambodia. To date, he has disarmed over 50,000 landmines by himself. Ra does all this without the sophisticated armor that modern Western use. He simply has a mask and a stick, and digs where he suspects there is a mine.
  • Many animals such as elephants survive these explosions but die a long painful death as they are unable to walk.
  • There are pageants (such as "Miss Landmine Cambodia") held annually to educate the people to be aware of the problem in their back yard.

My Wife, Mony in a Temple in Cambodia
My Wife, Mony in a Temple in Cambodia | Source
Working in a field.
Working in a field. | Source

Cambodian People

People of Cambodia.
People of Cambodia. | Source
Mother In-law (Mai Kamaike)
Mother In-law (Mai Kamaike) | Source
My In Mother and Father In-law.
My In Mother and Father In-law. | Source
Cambodian (Khmer) Writing from Ancient Sanskrit.
Cambodian (Khmer) Writing from Ancient Sanskrit. | Source
Cambodian Buddhist Monks
Cambodian Buddhist Monks | Source
Transportation! | Source
At the Market.
At the Market. | Source

Learn More About Cambodia from Amazon


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    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      Hello Vinaya! Until I met you, I knew nothing of Nepal! Thanks for educating me. There are so many things going on in the world that the US Media doesn't tell us or when they do, they twist it for political reasons. It is very sad to hear that the landmines are still a problem where you are. I am happy that there is order there and no more war. That is a step in the right direction. It sounds like Cambodia and Nepal have similar tragedies. Thank God they are both moving in the right direction. I hope that the rest of the world will follow in these footsteps. Thanks for sharing this insightful information my friend!


    • Vinaya Ghimire profile image

      Vinaya Ghimire 5 years ago from Nepal

      Nepal too witnessed 10 years of bloody war between the Communist and the government. Peace pact was signed in 2007 and now Nepal is trying to over come land mines spread during the war. Land mine death still occur and makes newspaper headlines.

      I have read about the beauty of Cambodia and the the cruelty of Khmer Rouge.

      I think Nepal and Cambodia shares the same troubled history and both are trying to come out of their dark phase.

    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      Glad to help you, ChristyWrites! Thanks for reading and commenting!


    • ChristyWrites profile image

      Christy Birmingham 5 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Hi JS, I read the notifications article and it was a big help for me. I adjusted my settings so hopefully now I will receive all messages. Now I'm off to read your article "How to get noticed on HubPages..." :)

    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      ChristyWrites: I am glad to be able to share and educate you on this. This problem is going on all over the world in over 80 countries. I hope that you follow the answer I wrote on your Hub and check out the comment I left with a link about receiving notifications on your own Hubs. It appears that you have received comments but are not aware of them. Please follow this link to my last comment that explains how to check for comments and notifications:

      I appreciate your comments and hope that you will enjoy your own. There are a lot of great Hubbers out there waiting for your next post! For more information, follow this link on Notifications:

      Thanks for stopping by and leaving another comment! I appreciate it!


    • ChristyWrites profile image

      Christy Birmingham 5 years ago from British Columbia, Canada

      Thank-you for bringing this topic to our attention. I was not aware of much of the information. Well written.

    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      @flashmakeit: Hello! It is incredible that one man can do so much good in such a short period of time. He is not alone either. There are many others just like him and many don't even get paid! I hope they can eradicate this problem all over the world very quickly. Too much needless death of civilians. Thanks for a great comment!


    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      @jpcmc: Glad to see you back! There's been a lot of good changes on the Hub lately! Happy you stopped by! It's true. War just never goes away. A few companies that make weapons become billionaires at the expense of human lives. Some wars are entirely for profit. I wish there was more peace and less hate! Thanks again for commenting. Its great to see you again!


    • flashmakeit profile image

      flashmakeit 5 years ago from usa

      Very informative information. Unbelievable how Aki Ra defused over 50,000 explosive devices. I hope in less than ten years they will get rid of all those land mines and end the pain and poverty.

    • jpcmc profile image

      JP Carlos 5 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines

      Been busy these past few months. But it's nice to read one of your hubs.

      War has plagues us since the ancient times. We just don't learn. True, we must all advocate peace.

    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      Hello algarveview! This is a little known tragic piece of history. It is not often taught in American schools. It is crazy to think that one person can order millions to be executed. I never understood how men like Pol Pot and Adolph Hitler rise and stay in power long enough to create this level of destruction. Yes, landmines are a huge problem in over 80 countries and we need to spread the word to fix this archaic and cowardly problem. I can't imagine being a mother and learning that my son or daughter was killed or maimed by something that has been lurking for decades. This is preventable and action needs to be taken internationally. I appreciate your comment! Thanks for stopping by!


    • algarveview profile image

      Joana e Bruno 5 years ago from Algarve, Portugal

      Hello, J.S.Matthew, I had never heard of The Killing Fields, it is unbelievable all the atrocities human beings can commit against each other, it's unbelievable what some regimes are capable of. It is a terrible thing everyone should be aware of, perhaps it's possible to learn from the past, so it's great you wrote about it. Also, very important the land mines subject, because it has been many years since I heard or read about this and it is so sad and so important we should never forget this subject. Unfortunatelly there are many people (and particularly) a lot of children affected by land mines all over the world and how terrible is it to see a young life destroyed over this. Can't even begin to imagine the heart of a mother... Great hub.

    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      JP it has been a long time, too long! It is very good to see you and hear from you again. The worst part of any conflict is the casualties; and in this cheap style of war, casualties are very common and innocent. They are often products of the past. Let us hope for the future and vote for peace! That's all we have left! Thank you for stopping by. I wish I could say that this is the end, but there is always more to come. History repeats itself. Here's to hope!


    • jpcmc profile image

      JP Carlos 5 years ago from Quezon CIty, Phlippines

      It is sad that such atrocities happen. Although the conflicts may have died down through the decades its impact continuous to haunt many. It makes one think whether people are innately good or not. But with a steadfast heart, I keep my faith strong and hope that the good in people will emerge victor. The killing field is a reminder to all to keep their faith strong and alive.

    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      Hello again RealHousewife, and thanks for leaving the first comment!

      This is a problem in many countries. South America has many areas that are almost as dangerous as Cambodia. Maybe that will be a later Hub! Unless we personally know people who are really effected by land mines, we will never understand how rampant and senseless these little killers are. And as they lay there, they are dormant snipers for eternity unless we remove them. Imagine if archaeologists had this problem. There would be no research left or artifacts because of these sporadic destructions. Imagine if we weren't able to enter King Tut's tomb? These are all things to think about. That is why I am trying to spread the word!

      As an American, I take things like land mines for granted because if I suffered from a landmine, I would either be a soldier of the Armed Forces on foreign soil, or would be victim to a sinister, isolated prank in the US. This is a problem all over the globe and we need to be aware of it and take action to fix it, as well as make sure it doesn't continue.

      The fact is that most landmines kill innocent people (at least 75% are not soldiers). Many of the victims are children, woman, and farmers trying to feed their families, let alone make a profit in this Cooperative world. Many of the casualties occur many years after the IEDs are planted.

      I appreciate every comment you leave me and I enjoy conversing with you. Thanks for voting everything up (definitely not funny!)


    • RealHousewife profile image

      Kelly Umphenour 5 years ago from St. Louis, MO

      I knew that this was a problem in other countries but didn't realize it was so bad! I wouldn't want to have to go around removing them either. Voted up and everything but funny.