It depends on exactly who was involved, the weapons used, and to what extent.
Right now I'm watching Russia, especially since Lithuania (a NATO member) has started sending weapons to assist Ukrainians in their fight against Russian separatists/Russian Forces.
I'm going to skip over the effects of nuclear war. It's an extinction level event and is not that likely because of mutually assured destruction.
As for conventional weapons, they'll be used to fight opposing forces directly and indirectly. Directly is obvious, trying to kill the enemy.
The indirect use will be used to accomplish different goals. There are some obvious targets such as the pentagon but there are many other targets that would effect the civilian population as well as the war effort of an enemy:
-Airports- One of greatest differences in warfare in the past 100 years is the introduction of Aircraft. Since it's introduction as a weapon of war in WWI, there are only a few cases of a faction losing a war while maintaining air superiority. Because of this, one of the first targets will be land based airstrips and because military aircraft can use civilian airports, it won't just be Air Force bases hit. Any runway is fair game. This will severely limit travel during and after the war for some time as repairs will have to be made.
-Communications- One of the key aspects of any modern military is the ability to communicate with allies and troops on the ground. Although some tech will be hard to disable, such as short wave radios, more complex systems, such as satellites and large comm relays, will be targeted. Because civilian comm systems can be used by the military, they'll be targeted like the rest. This will effect private and public comms for years until the repairs are complete; disabling business, academics, and political systems.
-Infrastructure- Finally if a faction can disable an enemies ability to produce products, they stand a chance of winning. Because of this power grids, dams, highway networks, factories, and any other system used in the production of weapons will likely be hit. This will take a huge toll on the countries involved and disable commerce, as well as limit services for civilians.
There are other potential effects, stock market crashes, or a near complete stop in global trade. Think the last one isn't likely? China for example requires all civilian cargo ships to be built in a fashion that allows them to convert to military vessels and china makes everything.
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