Quran and Islam Says Suicide is Illegal and not permissible - Islamic Teachings about Suicide
What Quran Says About Suicide?
Unfortunately, Muslims of today miserably failed to present true picture of Islam through their conduct and lifestyle that is why non-Muslims are not impressed with the teaching of Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and Quran, the last book of God. Today so-called Muslims are engaged in Suicidal bomb attacks which are strictly forbidden even in most devastated moments. This is not the way of Islamic Warfare, which prohibits killing of innocents. The battles fought in the early era of Islam clearly suggests that Muslims tried their best to avoid collateral damage, especially in the scenario when it was considered just a routine matter to kill civilians after conquering some cities, burning the crops and committing and molestation of innocent women.
The question; "What the Quran says about Suicide?" has attained magnificent importance in the present scenario as there is a surge in suicidal attacks by some so-called Muslim terrorists who are not only taking their own life but hundred of others including innocent children, women and elders. These so-called Muslims are totally unaware of the teachings of Quran and Sunnah.
According to the teaching of Quran committing suicide is a major sin and the person committing suicide has to face damnation and wrath of God in the world Hereafter. In deed, the God forbid Paradise for him. According to the Quran there is nothing more precious than life. A man or woman has no right to take his life. So in Surah Nisa the Quran says: ...And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you.
In Surah Al-Anam the Quran says: And slay not the life which Allah hath forbidden save with right. This is commanded unto you by Him so that ye may understand.
In the above verse of Quran the suicide and killing others are mentioned together.
The combined reading of above two verses of Quran shows that the matter of suicide and taking life of another person is discussed together hence this aspect is sufficient to prove that committing suicide is explicitly forbidden just as murder is forbidden and a person who commits suicide has committed a sin equivalent to the killing of others. In other words, committing suicide is no less than taking the life of other. At the same time it is reiterated that Allah is most merciful to the mankind, hence it is important that man may not despair from the Mercy of God at any moment and may not take his life hopelessly.
Suicide in most of the cases is a result of hopelessness and despair. Suicide attempt is also a cause of impatience. Someone who is in deep trouble may find it easy to commit suicide. This means that such person did not believe that even in most difficult situations God has the authority to help His servants. Hence Quran strictly prohibit despair feelings and says: "O my Servants who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (039.053)
In order to attain in depth analysis of this crucial issue in the light of Quran it is necessary to get guidance from another source of Islamic law i.e. the traditions of Holy Prophet (Peace be Upon Him), which prove that the person who commit suicide renders himself liable for punishment in the world Hereafter. So the Holy Prophet said: .....And if somebody commits suicide with anything in this world, he will be tortured with that very thing on the Day of Resurrection; And if somebody curses a believer, then his sin will be as if he murdered him....."
Suicide is prohibited even in battles as stated by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in the following Hadith:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
We were in the company of Allah's Apostle in a Ghazwa (battle), and he remarked about a man who claimed to be a Muslim, saying, "This (man) is from the people of the (Hell) Fire." When the battle started, the man fought violently till he got wounded. Somebody said, "O Allah's Apostle! The man whom you described as being from the people of the (Hell) Fire fought violently today and died." The Prophet said, "He will go to the (Hell) Fire." Some people were on the point of doubting (the truth of what the Prophet had said) while they were in this state, suddenly someone said that he was still alive but severely wounded. When night fell, he lost patience and committed suicide. The Prophet was informed of that, and he said, "Allah is Greater! I testify that I am Allah's Slave and His Apostle." Then he ordered Bilal to announce amongst the people: 'None will enter Paradise but a Muslim, and Allah may support this religion (i.e. Islam) even with a disobedient man.'
A companion of Prophet Hazrat Jundab narrates that the Prophet said, "A man was inflicted with wounds and he committed suicide, and so Allah said: My slave has caused death on himself hurriedly, so I forbid Paradise for him."
Narrated Abu Huraira:-
The Prophet said, "He who commits suicide by throttling shall keep on throttling himself in the Hell Fire (forever) and he who commits suicide by stabbing himself shall keep on stabbing himself in the Hell-Fire."
Hadith - Bukhari 7:670, Narrated Abu Huraira
The Prophet said, "Whoever purposely throws himself from a mountain and kills himself, will be in the (Hell) Fire falling down into it and abiding therein perpetually forever; and whoever drinks poison and kills himself with it, he will be carrying his poison in his hand and drinking it in the (Hell) Fire wherein he will abide eternally forever; and whoever kills himself with an iron weapon, will be carrying that weapon in his hand and stabbing his abdomen with it in the (Hell) Fire wherein he will abide eternally forever."
However, despite all these things it is also true that a person who commits suicide is a sinner, but he is still a Muslims. Hence Muslims have to bury him according to the Islamic traditions. It also proved from certain Ahadiths that the Holy Prophet in his period refused to offer funeral prayer of such a person. However, not did not forbid his companions to say funeral prayer.
Source of translation of Quran and Ahadith is from: http://www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/