ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Basic Formulae in Microsoft Excel

Updated on September 8, 2013

FORMULAE

Spread sheet formulae usually contain numbers, arithmetical operators and cell references. They can be typed in directly or Excel can help build them for you. You can use all the standard mathematical operators in your formula; e.g. () + - / *

ENTERING A FORMULA

  1. Activate the cell in to which you want to enter the formula.
  2. Enter "= (equals)"
  3. Type in the formula by hand or:

- Click in to each of the cells, adding the relevant operators (+/* - etc) where appropriate.

Click on the tick to accept the formula or press enter.


Source

In the example to the right; column B holds information on the Cost Price of the products listed in column A. Column C requires a formula to calculate a 10% Mark Up on the Cost Price for each product. Column D requires the total of the Cost Price and the Mark Up columns giving the Retail Price.

Source

Once the Mark Up price has been calculated, working out the Retail Price is quite easy.

Source

Type = in cell D3 (this is the cell where you want the answer to appear), click in to cell B3, select the plus option and click in to cell C3.

The last thing that you should always do is check the formula, if you are happy with it, click the tick or press enter.

Source

There are always several ways to complete the task in Excel. In the previous example, the formula that you have just completed to work out the Retail Price can be repeated for each product. It is quite permissible for you to repeat the process and type each formula out manually on each row. However, because both parts of the formula are on the same row in this example you can use the AutoFill feature.

The small black cross will appear when you move your mouse pointer over the bottom right hand corner of any selected cell or cells.

Once the small black cross appears simply click and drag down the appropriate number of rows and the formula will be copied down. Note: You can also double click the small black cross and the formula will fill down.

Source

The next step in our little example is to total each column. There are two ways that we can do this. One, use the formula =B3+B4+B5 etc. or two, use a Function called AutoSum. This function has been designed to add lists or ranges as they are called in Excel.

Both examples will provide the correct result however; you will be restricted by using multiple + symbols.

The AutoSum function is the most common function used Excel and therefore it appears in more than one place on the Ribbon. The AutoSum feature is at the right side of the home ribbon.

Source
Source

The first thing you must do is click in the cell where you want the answer to appear. Then click the AutoSum button. The function will guess what you want to add up, you must check that it is correct before clicking the tick or pressing enter.

In the example to the right the function has guessed correctly so it is safe to click the tick or press enter.

Source

Once again, all the elements in this formula are in the same column so you can use the AutoFill feature to drag the formula in to column D. Make sure that you see the small black cross in the bottom right hand corner before you start to drag.

Source

The results are displayed under each column as shown to the right.

MATHEMATICAL PRECEDENCE

If you require a combination of operators within the same formula be sure that you follow the rules of Mathematical Precedence. Multiplication and division are carried out before addition and subtraction.

If you want an addition to occur before a multiplication you must put the addition in brackets.

The order of precedence is Brackets, Multiplication and Division followed by addition and subtraction. BDMAS (Brackets, Division, Multiplication, Addition, and Subtraction) may help you remember the correct order.

E.g. Formula 24+36/12 = 27

Formula (24+36)/12 = 5

In my experience, quite a few people new to Excel will use a calculator to double check formulae results in Excel. I think this is because they do not really understand the order that Excel calculates. About 10% of people find mathematical precedence hard to understand.

Steve Says

I often ask my class to answer the following question.

What is 2+4/2?

Most reply with 3 as the answer having done the sum in two stages in their head.

I then get them to type the same formula in to an Excel Spread sheet.

The answer is 4. The reason is that the 4 is divided by 2 first, therefore the sum will end up being 2 + 2 which equals 4. This is mathematical precedence.

2 + 4/2

2 + 2 = 4

Most people are taught this at school at about 10 or 11 and forget it by the time they leave

Basic Sums in Excel

Source

Suggestions

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)