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How VoIP phone works using Voice over Internet Protocol

Updated on July 8, 2011
How voice over internet protocol works?
How voice over internet protocol works?

How VoIP works? Voice over Internet Protocol:

Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP service is used for communicating using the Internet protocol. Many years ago, it had been discovered that sending a signal to some remote destination could also be done digitally and before sending the signal, it should be scanned with an analog to digital converter (ADC) and then transmitting and transforming the target endpoint format again required analog with a digital to analog converter (DAC).

Now (Voice over Internet Protocol) VoIP works by digitalizing the voice in data packets and sending it through the network and then switching to voice at the destination. Basically, the process starts with analog phone signal digitized in pulse code modulation (PCM) by the voice decoder or codec.

The pulse code modulation samples are then passed to compression algorithm, which compresses the voice and then splits it into packets that can be easily transmitted through a private network or WAN.

Now, at the other end, the same procedure is performed with exactly the same functions but in reverse order.

Now depending on how a network is configured, the gateway or the router can perform the following tasks, i.e., encoding, decoding, and/or compression. For example, if there is a system that uses analog voice, then the gateway or the router performs all the functions mentioned above.

If on the other end, the device, which is being used, is a digital PBX, then it is this function which performs the decoding and the encoding and the router remains dedicated to processing the pulse code modulation samples that are being sent to PBX.

How Voip works?
How Voip works?

How VoIP works on Public Internet

In a case where the transportation or transmitting of voice is performed on public Internet, we need an interface between the IP network and the phone network which is simply called gateway which is in charge of the emitter side to convert compressed packet voice in analog signal and IP to be able to be transported across the whole network.

The receiver side then reverses the same functions since it is required to unpack the already acquired IP packets that it has received from the network and then reconstructs the whole data message to its previous original analog form thereby driving it again to the traditional telephone network for transportation to final destination.

After understanding the technical aspect of how VoIP works, it is really important to note that all networks used should have some or other way of addressing routing and signaling features because routing is required to identify destination and source of calls and is also used to associate different classes of service on each and every call depending on the priority list, so routing is the best way of forwarding packages from source to destination and carries or transports information via the network more efficiently.


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    • soni2006 profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajinder Soni 

      5 years ago from New Delhi, India

      Hi William, it's great that you are using a VOIP phone but can you please let us know in which country you are located?

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      VoIP is a good thing and Im glad i started using it. I bought a great VoIP phone from Grandstream and Im connected to Ozeki Phone System XE. It was easy to install so I would recommend it for those who new to the topic.

    • profile image


      6 years ago

      thanks a lot soni

    • soni2006 profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajinder Soni 

      9 years ago from New Delhi, India

      It's my pleasure Helen. I have gone through your hubs on beauty and self care and found them really interesting. Would love to be your fan forever..

    • Helen Cater profile image

      Helen Cater 

      9 years ago from UK

      I did not know what this was until I read your hub. Thanks soni for some sound advice and information.

    • soni2006 profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajinder Soni 

      9 years ago from New Delhi, India

      Thank you so much Money Glitch, H P Roychoudhury, and SEO Expert Kerala for going through this hub in great detail.

      @ Money Glitch, Whenever I find some new topics that interests me, I do a study on that and then come up with a new hub or article in my own language from what I understand while studying. In that way, I am able to create a unique article which is understandable by a common reader or layman. Thanks for your appreciation. I will publish more hubs on VOIP.

      @ H P Roychoudhury, I am not a Telecom engineer but my cousin brother is studying telecommunication so I gathered some points and learned about VOIP from him.

      @ SEO Expert Kerala, thanks for providing such a good keyword friend. I am afraid I know little about VPN or virtual private network but will study and do some research on it and share my learnings by creating a new hub.

    • SEO Expert Kerala profile image

      SEO Expert Kerala 

      9 years ago from KERALA

      Do you know any thing about VPN ? Is it related to VoIP ?

    • H P Roychoudhury profile image

      H P Roychoudhury 

      9 years ago from Guwahati, India

      Hi Soni,

      I have the opportunity to go through your VOIP. It is unique. But I was more surprised when I have gone through your profiles. Having being a Medical Transcription worker what you had described is astonishing. Had you been a Telecom Engineer, I am afraid what you had not been?

    • Money Glitch profile image

      Money Glitch 

      9 years ago from Texas

      Great hub Soni! I now have a little better understanding of how Voip works whereas before everything I attempted to read in the past was a little too technical for me. I look forward to reading the hubs you are promising us in the future. Thanks for sharing!

    • soni2006 profile imageAUTHOR

      Rajinder Soni 

      9 years ago from New Delhi, India

      Thank you very much Veronica, habee, livingsta, Duchess OBlunt, ocbill, and Jyoti Kothari for your overwhelming response to Voip technology. I will be writing out more useful information on Voip phones via my upcoming hubs, especially security threat to using voice over internet protocol.

    • JYOTI KOTHARI profile image

      Jyoti Kothari 

      9 years ago from Jaipur

      Hi Soni,

      This is like an tele-communication engineer. Excellent.

      Thanks and thumbs up!

      Jyoti Kothari

    • ocbill profile image


      9 years ago from hopefully somewhere peaceful and nice

      VOIP is great. I like it, although, hopefully your ISP is reliable though.

    • profile image

      Duchess OBlunt 

      9 years ago

      Great information! Looking forward to more.

    • livingsta profile image


      9 years ago from United Kingdom

      Good information for people who need to know about VOIP..Thanks for sharing Soni

    • habee profile image

      Holle Abee 

      9 years ago from Georgia

      Wow! That's mind boggling! Thanks for sharing!

    • Veronica Allen profile image

      Veronica Allen 

      9 years ago from Georgia

      Great job again Sonni2006.


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