There are a few ways to protect your hubs by copyrighting them. The simplest and a way that most hubbers utilize here, is by placing a few sentences below your finished publication...stating that this is exclusively your work and that it is protected by copyright infringement. In other words most folks who read it, will understand that it should not be copied and placed elsewhere. Because of the fact that you are its original owner and producer. Hope this helps you with your prior question.
If you mean the protection of the right to use your content, it is 'copyright' and not "copy write".
Actually, you don't even have to add a line... This appears at the bottom of every single page on HubPages.
Copyright © 2011 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
Then again, if someone is intent on copying your content they will do it regardless of a copyright notice.
I was taught in a postgrad. library and info studies course 25 years ago that copyright is an inherent right of the author and does not need to be "claimed" as such on the original work.
However, that was a long time ago and in the UK. I know there was always a procedure of "filing copyrigh"t in the US, but do not know if this was mandatory for an author active in the US or just an extra.
Unfortunately, the other thing I was taught was that the concept of copyright was more or less meaningless except for the largest corporations etc. The reason for this was that the typical damages awarded in court for breach of copyright were so miniscule, they did not even cover a fraction of the legal fees required to bring the matter to court.
This recent thread pretty much covers all those aspects:
Copyright is among the intellectual property rights of an individual or entity. It is an inherent right of the creator of the property or the title-holder thereof. In theory and principle no outright, express claim of the right is necessary. The right is inherent and inalienable. Further, such a claim alone is not sufficient to protect the right.
Copyright registration is the only legitimate procedure to protect the right. Suppose your property is unregistered and you claim the right only through some mode of express warnings and someone copy it unauthorizedly. It is a copyright infringement and you proceed. Then as it is unregistered, it would be difficult for you to establish your title to it. Your adversary's defense would be that they are the title-holders and you are the culprit copying their property and infringing their right.
It is said that only corporations will be successful in copyright infringement proceedings. Corporations and individuals alike can be successful. The stake involved is what matters. The court would take into account the actual damage caused by the infringement to award the compensation. Suppose a copyrighted product of a corporation has been copied and sold by someone in a particular market. Such an infringement has affected the profit along with the good will and brand equity of the corporation. That amount would be a substantial sum.
Conversely, suppose your copyright-registered hub with a few hundred annual page views is copied by someone. You can very well proceed and succeed if the perpetrator's identity can be established. The stake involved is very minimal and the award would also be very minimal, just a small fraction of the cost of the proceedings.
In consequence, only when the stake involved is high, people proceed in copyright infringement.
Copyright is and always has been a legislated right, which sets it apart from human rights. A measure of copyright protection is automatic for the countries that have joined the Berne Convention. For other countries, it will depend on their national rules and regulations. Even among those countries that have joined, practices vary, for example with respect to the importance of registration.
If the title-holder of any creation wants to enforce their claim of copyright through a legal system, primarily they have to establish their title to it. In order to establish their such title, registration or some similar statutorily valid procedure is mandatory.
All these aspects are applicable only in modern democratic systems.
Your information is incorrect!
"There is no official copyright register because copyright is automatic. There are certain steps you can take to protect your rights, but you do not have to register anywhere.
... neither registration nor sending a copy of the work to yourself show that you were the creator of the work. Keeping copies of all your drafts and any other material that shows your connection with the particular copyright material as you develop it could, however, be useful evidence if you ever have to prove that you are the author."
UK Intellectual Property Office, http://www.ipo.gov.uk/types/c-register.htm
I agree. Many countries do not even have copyright registration mechanisms in place. The registration paradigm is largely derived from common law; not coincidentally, Britain and the US were among the last major nations to join the Berne Convention.
I don't want to say someone is right or wrong. May be in your country there may not be any such registration procedure. But in many countries there is such a procedure. Often the registration is kept pending for a certain period to afford objection from any party.
Rules and regulations may vary in each nation. But in any modern system, if anyone wants to claim any right over any property, they have to at the outset prove that they have title to it. For intellectual property rights, registration or some similar procedure is necessary to ascertain the title. If not, it would be difficult to defend rival claims.
"Do I have to register with your office to be protected?
No. In general, registration is voluntary. Copyright exists from the moment the work is created. You will have to register, however, if you wish to bring a lawsuit for infringement of a U.S. work."
US Copyright Office
http://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/faq-g … l#register
And for most people, it is not worth the expense of going to the courts.
Copyright under the Berne Convention must be automatic; it is prohibited to require formal registration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berne_Conv … stic_Works
The convention website has a list of all member nations. Generally, I would only recommend registration for valuable works or in case this is needed to file suit.
Let's be careful not to confuse copyright with patents and trademark registration.
IT IS SO GIVEN IN THE WIKIPEDIA:
"In the UK, there are also requirements to file certain published works with the British Library and, on request, the five legal deposit libraries.
In the United States, the United States Copyright Office accepts registrations. For works created in the US by US citizens, a registration is also required before an infringement suit may be filed in a US court. Furthermore, copyright holders cannot claim statutory damages or attorney's fees unless the work was registered prior to infringement, or within three months of publication".
Legal deposit in the UK is a completely different matter. It was a mechanism introduced to ensure that UK national libraries had an exhaustive collection of work published in the UK.
The fact a work has been deposited in one of the national libraries can be used as evidence when fighting a copyright case, however it is not required for asserting copyright.
Yes, I already cited the US Copyright Office saying that registration is required to take a copyright matter to court.
However, it is not required for the existence of copyright as such.
My alter-ego on hub pages is a test profile for writing sales-oriented hubs. As I am not very good at them, I decided I was uncomfortable placing them on my main profile. She only has 8 hubs to her name, poor thing, all sales, mostly not very good.
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by premsingh 10 years ago
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