ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Kingdom-Fungi

Updated on October 10, 2015

This kingdom involves achlorophyllous thallophytes.
These are heterotrophic, saprophytic or parasitic and some of them are pathogenic.
They grow on every habitat wherever organic food materials are available.
The plant body is called Mycelium. The branches are called hyphae.
Cell wall is made of Chitin. It is apolysaccharide consisting nitrogen. It is highly resistant.
Food is stored in the form of Glycogen and or oil drops. Glycogen is also called Animal starch.
The Mycelium may some time be associated with roots and show symbiosis. It forms Mycorrhiza. Sometimes a fungus may show symbiosis in association with an alga and form Lichen.

1. Vegetative reproduction: It occurs by fragmentation, fission and budding
2. Asexual reproduction: It occurs by akinetes, spores, zoospores or conidia.
3. Sexual reproduction: It involves sex organs gametes Sex organs are unicellular and non-jacketed
It occurs in 3 steps - 1) Plasmogamy
2) Karyogamy
3) Meiosis
The life cycle is haplontic. Haploid stage is dominant. Diploid stage is restricted to Zygote which shows reduction division immediately. Fungi shows progressive reduction in sexuality.
Fungi can be divided into 4 classes basing on
1. Morphology of Mycelium
2. Spore formation
3. Fruiting bodies


1. Phycomycetes:

They are aquatic and also grow on moist damp places. So they are called Algal Fungi.
They are saprophytic (e.g.: Rhizopus - Grow on decaying wood or bread) or obligatory parasitic (Albugo on Mustard)
They are multi nucleate, aseptate and coenocytic.
Example: Rhizopus, Mucor
Vegetative reproduction occurs by fragmentation.
Asexual reproduction occurs by Akinetes or by endogenous sporangiospores. The spores may be aplamospores or zoospores.
Sexual reproduction
It may occur by gametangial copulation (Rhizopus) or by the fusion of gametes (Isogamous or Anisogamous or Oogamous). Zygospore shows Meiosis.
Isogamy: (Iso = equal, Gamos = Marriage)
Union between 2 gametes of equal size and shape-
Anisogamy (Aniso = unequal)
Union between unequal gametes.

Oogamy (Oo = egg cell)
Union between male gamet and egg cell.
Isogamy is primitive. Oogamy is advanced
Plasmogamy and Karyogamy occur simultaneously


2. Ascomycetes:

It is the most important useful fungi to mankind. The Fungi may be unicellular
Example: Yeast or multicellular. Example: Pencillium, Aspergillus.
Neurospora is widely used in genetical experiments. It is also called Drosophila of plant kingdom. Morels and Truffles are edible. Yeast is used in bakeries and fermentation. The first antibiotic (Penicillin) was obtained by Alexander Fleming from Pencillium. The fungi may be saprophytic, parasitic or coprophilic (grow on dung).
Vegetative Reproduction: It occurs by fragmentation. Budding occurs in Yeast.
Asexual reproduction: It occurs by forming exogenous conidia on conidiophore branches.

Sexual reproduction: Plasmogamy occurs. Karyogamy is delayed. It results in the formation of dikaryotic ascogenous hyphae are produced. They develop into fruiting bodies called Ascocarps enclosing sac like asci (sing: ascus). Karyogamy occurs followed by Meiosis. Thus sexual endogenous ascospores are formed.
Ascocarps are 3 types:
1. Cleistothecium: It is spherical, globose without opening.
Example: Pencillium.
2. Perithecium: It is flask shaped with an opening.
Example: Claviceps.
3. Apothecium: It is saucer or cup shaped and widely exposed.
Example: Peziza


3. Basidiomycetes:

  • These are also called Club Fungi.
  • These are multicellular, septate, saprophytic or parasitic. Agaricus is saprophytic. Puccinia and Ustilago are parasitic and pathogenic.

They cause the most important diseases in cereal crops like smut (Ustilago) and Rust (Puccinia). Agaricus is commonly called Mushroom. It is edible and the richest source of Proteins. Amanita is the Poisonous Mushroom.
Other important common members are Lycoperdon (Puffball), Polyporus (Bracket fungus)

Vegetative Reproduction: It occurs by fragmentation.
Asexual Reproduction: It is absent.
Sexual Reproduction: It is highly reduced. Sex organs, gametes and flagellated bodies are absent.
Two somatic hyphae of opposite strains unite (Somatogamy). Plasmogamy occurs. Karyogamy is delayed. Dikaryotic mycelium forms fruiting bodies called 'Basi diocarps. They enclose Basidia (Sing: Basidium) Karyogamy & Meiosis occur in Basidium. Exogenous sexual basidiospores are formed.


4. Deuteromycetes:

It is also called Dustbin class. Its members are called Imperfect fungi because perfect stage or sexual stage is absent in the life cycle.
Vegetative and Asexual phases are known.
If sexual stage is discovered the member will be shifted either to Ascomycetes or Basidiomycetes. The mycelium is multicellular, septate, saprophytic or parasitic, and pathogenic.

Some Important members are
1. Alternaria - It causes early blight of Potato
2. Colletotrichum - It causes Red rot of Sugarcane
3. Helminthosporium - It causes leaf spot of Rice
4. Cercospora - It causes Tikka disease of groundnut
5. Trichoderma - It is associated with roots and forms Mycorrhiza

Kingdom Protista and Kingdom Fungi


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)