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Ancient India: Who was Chanakya?

Updated on January 18, 2014
Mauryan Empire, founded by Chandragupt Maurya
Mauryan Empire, founded by Chandragupt Maurya | Source

Chanakya is a very popular personality in India. He is said to be Godfather of Emperor Chandragupt Maurya. But there are many controversies regarding him.

Whatever we know about Chanakya today through media, movies, books and mouths of some people, is based on the 8th century Sanskrit drama called Mudra Rakshas written by Vishakhadata. The drama discusses political activities of Chanakya and nothing else. As this drama was written after 1200 years of Chandragupta, we can not rely solely on it to know this personality. The drama itself is based on Mahanamthero, a Buddhist book. This drama says nothing about the parents and forefather of Chanakya, or about his childhood, marriage and death.

Interestingly, there are lot of references to Chanakya in ancient Jain literature, which gives detailed account of the life of Chanakya. According to it, we know that Chanakya was born to Chanak, a Vedic Brahmin who was later converted to Jainism. When Chanakya was born, he had teeth in his mouth. A Jain monk who came for alms to Chanak’s home predicted that the child will become a King in future. It was not acceptable to Chanak, so he removed the teeth from the child’s mouth. After knowing this act by Chanak, the monk said, "Now the child will become a kingmaker in future".

When Chanakya become young, he was unable to get a bride as he was poor and ugly. However, he managed to marry with a poor girl Yashomati. Once, there was a family function in her father's home, where she got insulted by her rich sisters, and she came back to Chanakya with tears in her eyes. After knowing the reasons of her sorrow, Chanakya decided to do something great.

Then all the political things like his insult by Emperor Dhananand, training to Chandragupt and a war with Dhananand happens.

Like Chandragupt Maurya, Chanakya also became a Jain monk after his retirement from his Ministership. Unfortunately, when he was meditating in a jungle with other monks, the jungle was set on fire by a minister of Bindusar, the son of Chandragupt, and it was the end of the life of Chanakya.

Although references to Chanakya in Jain and Buddhist literature are older than that of Mudra Rakshas, and they prove the existence of Chanakya, we should note that there are no references to Chanakya in Greek history and literature. Megasthenes, the ambassador of Greeks was in court of Chandragup Maurya for a decade, and who has written much about Chandragupt and others, do not mentions Chanakya. This suggests that Chanakya was not existing at the time of Chandragupt Maurya and was probably created by some people in later period.

Chandragupt Maurya was clever enough to plan and execute his ambitions, and he didn’t need any Godfather to teach him. But the content of Mudra Rakshas clearly indicates that the drama was written to attach importance to Chanakya and give secondary place to Emperor Chandragupt. Indian history is full of such things.

-Mahavir Sanglikar


Comments

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  • profile image

    Samraj19 

    5 years ago

    Why Kalinga, Tamil region and Srilanka was not ruled by Chandra Gupta? Considering his powerful nature of ruling the entire Greater India, it is a surprise that these regions are left out

    Ashoka had a Kalinga war but never had any war with Tamil region or Srilanka.

    I guess, either marital or blood relationship could exists between the rulers but not sure, jainismus can enlighten us with another Hub!

  • jainismus profile imageAUTHOR

    Mahaveer Sanglikar 

    6 years ago from Pune, India

    Well Vani, whoever wrote that books was a genius, but the books were not written in the era that you say. That is a different story and I would like to write on it in another article.

  • profile image

    Vani 

    6 years ago

    Whether chanakya and kautilya were same or not but somebody with great brain had born in India who could write Arthashastra and Niti shastra some 2000 years back. Even today it applies. Amazing

  • jainismus profile imageAUTHOR

    Mahaveer Sanglikar 

    6 years ago from Pune, India

    Thanks Shashank....

  • profile image

    Shashank Nakate 

    6 years ago

    Continue with your good work...

  • jainismus profile imageAUTHOR

    Mahaveer Sanglikar 

    6 years ago from Pune, India

    Thanks Ritu for reading and commenting.

  • jainismus profile imageAUTHOR

    Mahaveer Sanglikar 

    6 years ago from Pune, India

    Thanks Ritu for reading and commenting.

  • profile image

    ritu jain 

    6 years ago

    Thanks for writing such an informative articles. hats off to you

  • jainismus profile imageAUTHOR

    Mahaveer Sanglikar 

    6 years ago from Pune, India

    Anil Chavan,

    You are right. Indian history is manipulated by many historians.

  • Sandy Frost profile image

    Sandy Frost 

    6 years ago from India

    Really, Chanakya was like a milestone in the fields of wisdom, economics and politics. He acted as the backbone and mainstay for establishment of mauryan empire. You have written an excellent hub on one of the greatest personalities ever born on earth. Thank you.

  • profile image

    shivani 

    6 years ago

    i don't in such information!! if it is so ...den there must be some proof of it.....bt no body have....

  • profile image

    Amit 

    6 years ago

    Great work by Author ,

    I agree with u Anil

  • profile image

    amit kudale 

    6 years ago

    ... 100 % chankya virtual charter..

  • profile image

    Anil Chavan 

    6 years ago

    Its may be __the drama was written to attach importance to Chanakya and give secondary place to Emperor Chandragupt. Indian history is full of such things.__ We can see that in Shivaji Maharajas charitra.

  • jainismus profile imageAUTHOR

    Mahaveer Sanglikar 

    6 years ago from Pune, India

    The language of Arthashastra is of later period (about 3rd Century)and doesn't match with the Sanskrit of Mauryan period. So many scholars have come to the conclusion that Chanakya and Kautilya are two different personalities.

    I will write a different hub on this subject.

  • profile image

    Major Ajit Raka 

    6 years ago

    What about the treatise of Chanakya on economics? Also has written on politics. I may be wrong so may correct me on this.

  • profile image

    Rupesh shah 

    6 years ago

    I like store Chanakya

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