I don't think there's any disease other than rabies which the canines share with humans. I've read somewhere that Canines and Humans do not share diseases. Rabies is an exception though. Nothing else I think. Never heard of any other disease being transferred by Canines to Humans
This should give you a starting place for your research. The infections that can be transferred between species are zoonoses. The following article covers both dogs and cats, but you should get the idea.