Each hair has a tiny muscle that it is attached to. When a person or animal gets frightened or excited, the muscles which are controlled by the nervous system contract and create a "goosebump", which by fault raises the hair to an upright position. This is a product of our evolutionary progress. The hairs standing up in response to a heightened sense of awareness allows us to better protect ourselves against any threat.
When a person experiences strong emotions such as fear, nostalgia, pleasure, awe, admiration and sexual arousal or in cold, the stimulus causes the tiny muscles attached to each hair follicle known as arrectores pilorum, to contract This contraction causes the hair strands to literally "stand on end." At the same time, the tiny muscles that are contracting are causing a "bunching" of the skin surrounding the hairs, which results in the "bumps" commonly known as goosebumps and medically termed as cutis anserina.
Goose bumps are created when The reflex is started by the sympathetic nervous system. iT can be experienced in the presence of cold temperatures. This is the body's way of preserving its own heat by causing the hairs on the skin to stand up, thus reducing heat loss.
Each hair has a tiny muscle at the root. When a person is frightened this contracts, causing the hair to become more erect. The erection is much more pronounced in the case of a frightened cat, or in that of a pugnacious dog, when it is doubtless intended to give the creature a more formidable appearance.
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