ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Writing and Revising

Updated on January 13, 2019
LiveFitForLife profile image

I'm an adjunct professor of English at Bryant & Stratton College. I have an M.A. in English from National University.


The writing process is an undulating experience. In other words, there is not necessarily a straight and narrow path from start to finish. While writing your discovery draft, you may jump between the acts of writing, revising, and reflecting. You may begin to write a sentence, stop mid-way, reread your paragraph, delete a few words, change a phrase, and then pick up where you left off. You might go through dozens of these cycles during a single assignment. In fact, I have already done so several times as I wrote this sentence. After I wrote that last sentence, I reread this whole paragraph to ensure it flowed properly. This is discovery drafting 101 in a nutshell.

Effective Paragraphing

Every composition can be deconstructed into smaller or larger sections. The basic progression from largest to smallest follows like this:

Predictably, the text encompasses the entirety of your composition. Your text will be influenced by a variety of factors such as your intended audience, your authorial intent, your thesis statement, the nature of your topic, and the medium of communication. These will be described in greater detail in future articles.

Paragraphs comprise the ‘meat and potatoes’ of your text. They are visually distinguishable from each other and the purpose of separating your text into paragraphs is to help your readers easily follow the progression of your sub-topics, understand the relationship between sub-topics, and identify how these ideas relate back to your thesis statement or main topic.

Effective paragraphs are exemplified through their organization. The most common formula for paragraph composition is the ‘Sandwich Method.’ This method comprises three parts:

Another effective paragraphing formula is the SOAP Method, or “Subject, Objective, Assessment, and Plan” Method. This formula follows below:

From my experience, the SOAP Method works best for introductory and concluding paragraphs, whereas the Sandwich Method works best for body paragraphs. Be sure to experiment with both in your writing style. Eventually, as you continue practicing your craft, these formulas will become engrained within your unconscious and your writing will flow naturally without thought. Here is an excellent resource that explores writing effective paragraphs in further detail:

General Revision and Editing Strategies

As I have previously mentioned, even the best writers revise and proofread their writing. For the most part, this concerns the micro elements of composing such as sentence structure, phrasing, word choice, and punctuation. We will cover these in more depth in future articles because this area of writing focuses on more fine-tuned aspects of composition. Here, I want to continue to focus on the macro elements such as how we can use the FACT Method to enhance paragraph flow.

FACT Revision

The FACT Method stands for: Fit, Add, Cut, and Test. As you reread your writing some of the questions you should be thinking about are:

Is this relevant to my main topic? (Does it Fit?)

Does this idea need supporting examples, evidence, or details? (Can I add something?)

Does my paragraph lack focus and clarity? (Can I cut any wordiness or clutter?)

Is my writing clear, concise, and precise? (Test drive your sentence— does it make sense?)

Acheiving Flow

The main aim of your revision efforts is to establish and ensure your writing has flow. This is arguably the most important aspect of the writing process besides staying on topic. Think about your favorite book, movie, TV show, or song. One of the common denominators linking the success of these various forms of compositions is FLOW. The beginning and end are seamlessly entwined. Every sentence, every word, and every moment are purposeful—there is no wasted energy, no empty breath. Understand, during your writing, every word and idea must build upon each other; every topic sentence should relate to your main topic; every concluding sentence should lead into your next paragraph; every sentence should fit together like pieces to a puzzle. When you revise or review your writing, always be sure to conduct a flow test. Let this guide your revision process.

© 2018 The Professor


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)