ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Manufacturing Processes - Brazing and Soldering

Updated on October 15, 2014

Brazing and Soldering

Brazing and soldering comes under the manufacturing processes category of joining. The process in both cases involves introducing a low temperature alloy into a controlled gap between metal surfaces. An important aspect of the brazing and soldering process is the preparation of the component material in the area of the joint before starting to braze or solder the joint.

The operator needs to ensure the surfaces to be joined are scrupulously cleaned, degreased and if necessary abraded. Without proper preparation the flow of liquid metal into the joint will not occur satisfactorily. Brazing and soldering relies on a capillary action taking place for the molten metal to flow between the components being joined. The parent metal remains above melting point for the duration of the process and a flux is used, specifically chosen for the metal being joined, to aid the capillary flow of the liquid metal.

High production volumes of components being joined using the brazing or soldering process are normally pre-assembled (or where necessary jigged), often with a pre-sized charge of alloy which has been calculated to be sufficient to fill the joint adequately. Heat can be applied in a number of ways but one of the most common methods is using a conveyor furnace with a torch or induction heating as the heat source.

Cycle times are dependent on heating and cooling times and the quality of the joint is dependent on the care taken preparing the surfaces. Inadequate surface preparation will cause defects due to incomplete wetting of the joints.

Equipment costs are low so consequently the process of brazing and soldering is a low cost option. Costs will increase where automated systems are employed dependent on the level of sophistication required. There is also virtually no waste of the soldering or brazing alloy, particularly where pre-sized charges are use, but the flux used for the process is consumed.

Brazing and soldering, when you consider that you are introducing a layer of material between two surfaces and rely on the chemical and physical bonding of the materials to hold the joint together, can be considered a gluing process for metals.

Abrasion of the surfaces can provide the mechanism for allowing the molten liquid to penetrate into the resulting surface crevices which when solidified effectively anchors the filler material to the surface and holds the parts together mechanically.

Advantages of Brazing and Soldering Over Fusion Welding

  • Substrate remains solid throughout, therefore less heat energy is required
  • Less of the substrate is affected metallurgically by the application of heat
  • The process is less expensive because it requires less energy

Soldering can be differentiated from brazing because of the lower melting temperature of the filler material. Typically solder constitutes primarily of a tin/lead* alloy with alternative alloy components or percentage changes being introduced and varied to increase/decrease the melting temperature. The cut off between soldering and brazing is generally recognized as being above or below 450C.

A melting point below 450C is typically considered to be soldering and above 450C it is typically considered to be brazing, although silver soldering or hard soldering is normally above 450C and consequently should be considered to be the first level of brazing even though it is never really referred to as brazing and nearly always as soldering.

* Many modern solders have had their lead component removed and replaced for health and safety reasons under the RoHS directive (Restriction of Hazardous Substances). This has mostly affected the electronics industry that has traditionally used lead/tin solders for the production/assembly of electronic circuit boards.

Selected Soldering and Brazing Systems (Landolt-Börnstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology - New Series)
Selected Soldering and Brazing Systems (Landolt-Börnstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology - New Series)

The present volume in the New Series of Landolt-Börnstein provides critically evaluated data on phase diagrams, crystallographic and thermodynamic data of ternary alloy systems. Reliable phase diagrams provide materials scientists and engineers with basic information important for fundamental research, development and optimization of materials.

The often conflicting literature data have been critically evaluated by Materials Science International Team, MSIT®, a team working together since many years, and with expertise in a broad range of methods, materials and applications. All evaluation reports published here have undergone a thorough review process in which the reviewers had access to all the original data.

 

Brazing and Soldering Processes

Brazing and Soldering - Your Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)