Manufacturing Processes - Forging Process
Metal Shaping Processes
As the only comprehensive text focusing on metal shaping processes, which are still the most widely used processes in the manufacture of products and structures, Metal Shaping Processes carefully presents the fundamentals of metal shaping processes with their relevant applications.
An encyclopaedic guide to production techniques and materials for product and industrial designers, engineers, and architects.
Metal Forging Process
The metal forging process comes under the category of forming as a manufacturing process. It involves the forming or shaping of bulk metal between dies which mirror the shape of the component or section of a component that is required. On occasions that can be the very simple geometry required to produce a flat or radius or it might be a complex 3D shape. The dies can either be open or closed depending on the size of the component being produced. Open die is used for larger components and closed die for small components.
The process can be used, as indicated, to produce 3D solid shapes without re-entrant angles from any material that is ductile at the forging temperature. Forging is typically classed under 3 categories; hot, warm or cold as dictated by the material being processed.
Based on the traditional art of forging carried out by blacksmiths in times gone by, forging has evolved into a modern metal working process that has been somewhat automated through the adoption of power driven presses and pre-machined dies.
The machines and dies required for the forging process can be costly dependent on complexity and the open die forging process tends to rely on the skill of the operators to produce satisfactory quality levels. This is because open die forging are often general purpose where closed die are dedicated to specific component shapes.
The quality of the components produced are also affected by the forging temperature with surface texture and dimensional accuracy deteriorating with increased temperatures. Hot forging nearly always results in a flash that has to be removed with secondary machining operations whereas cold forging can be produced near shape.
Setting up times are very much dependent on the complexity of the tooling and cycle times are dictated by the rate of operation of the equipment. As a general rule it can be said that open die forging would be a long cycle time but with sufficient automation, closed die forging cycle times can be quite short.
Advantages of the Forging Process
The main advantage of forging over casting or machining is the strength of the component. This is because the grain of the structure of the component flows with the shape of the component where it has been formed.
To take the most advantage of this characteristic the sections being forged should generally be less critical in terms of dimensional accuracy. Datum features or interfaces can be produced using secondary machining operations for higher accuracy.
Metal Forging Process
Additional Resources for Manufacturing Processes
- Manufacturing Processes and Methods Process
The selection of a manufacturing process is done very much on the basis of a manufacturer choosing the process that best suits his needs. Consideration must be given to a number of factors before deciding on a...
- Materials Selection versus Manufacturing Process
Material selections can determine what manufacturing processes are available, form can determine what materials can be used and manufacturing processes can determine what form can be created. So what you...
- Manufacturing Processes - Isostatic Pressing
Isostatic pressing is a powder processing process that falls in the category of forming under the general category of manufacturing processes. There are 2 types of isostatic pressing processes: Hot...
- Manufacturing Processes - Pressing and Sintering
Pressing and sintering is a powder processing process that falls in the general category of forming under the manufacturing processes umbrella.The powder is pressed in closed dies to form a green compact that...
- Manufacturing Processes - Blow Moulding
The blow moulding process fits in the general manufacturing processes category of 'forming'. A heat softened hollow plastic blank, sometimes referred to as a 'parison' is clamped between two mould halves. Air...
- Manufacturing Processes - Vacuum Forming
The vacuum forming process comes under the general manufacturing processes category of forming. The process involves producing components that are formed by heat softening plastic sheet and forcing it against...
- Manufacturing Processes - Sheet Metal Forming
The sheet metal forming process comes under the category of forming as a manufacturing process. There are a number of sheet metal forming methods available which all consist of some form of deformation of the...
- Manfacturing Processes - Rolling And Metal Forming
Metal rolling is manufacturing process that falls under the general category of forming. It facilitates the continuous forming of bulk metal between two rotating roller tools. It is a 2 dimensional process...
- Manufacturing Processes - Extrusion Process
Extrusion fits under the general category of forming in manufacturing processes. The term applies to a variety of processes that involve confining a material in a container and applying a force to push the...
- Manufacturing Processes - Superplastic Forming
Superplastic forming as the name suggests falls in the manufacturing processes category of forming. The process works under closely controlled conditions of temperature and strain rates which allow certain...
- Statistical Process Control versus Acceptance Sampli...
There are two types of product quality control approaches that are going to be compared and contrasted in this article, namely: Acceptance Sampling Statistical Process Control. (SPC) The purpose of...
- Manufacturing and Technology Blog
Manufacturing and industrial information on manufacturing processes, project management, engineering principles and technology.