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Updated on May 29, 2013

Nicaragua  is  boundered  dy  Honduras  from    North,  by  the  Carribean Sea  from  East,  by  Costa  Rica  from    South  and  by  the  Pacific  Ocean from    West.

The  country  has  lots  of  rugged  mountains  with  volcanoes.  Some  active ones  are,  for  example,  the  volcano  of  Momotombo ( 4,126 ft )  and  those  on  the  Omepete Island.  Nicaragua  is  broken  up  into  two  highlands  and  lowlands  areas.  There  is  a  volcano  plain  along  the  Pacific  coast   and  a  broad  valley  inland from  the  Pacific  coast  what  is  tectonically  active  and  where  earthquake faults  and  volcanoes  being.  The  fertile  volcanic  soil  and  the  mountain slopes  makes  this  area  the  most  settled  part  of  the  country.  Its  largest  city  and  capital,  Managua  located  here.  Between  the  lakes  and  the  Pacific  Ocean  is the  isthmuslike  ridge,  called  Mosquito  Coast  what  starts  at  Honduras  and  extends  in  Nicaragua  downward  to  San  Juan  River.  This  is  region  of   swamps  and  jungles  drained  by  River  Coco.  It  also  has  a  hot,  humid  plain along  the  Carribean  coast.

Its  population  is  composed  mainly  from  four  ethnic  groups;  the  negroes (9%),  the  Indians  (4%).  This  group  is  divided  into  two  groups,  the  scattered  and  the  semi-independent  tribes  of  the  central  highlands  called Indios  Bravos.  Finally  there  also  being  the  white  people  (10%)  and  the Mestizos  (remainder 77%).  The  population  concentrated  on  the  triangular  area  between  the  lakes  and  the  Pacific  Ocean.  About  25%  of  the  total population  living  in  the  cities  or  the  towns.  Its  whole  population  in  1994 was  4,096,689.  The  life  expectancy  in  also  1994  was  61  male  by  67  female,  the  literacy  rate  in  1991  was  57%  and  the  per  capita  of  GDP  in 1995  was  $1,600.

 In   Nicaragua  the  agriculture  is  the  major  economic  activity.  The  cattle raising,  daining  and  gold  mining  compete  as  principal  occupations.  The  Nicaragua  exports  mainly  gold,  coffee,  but  also  exports  rubber,  raw  cotton,  cabinet  woods  and  hides  and  skins.  Their  local  crops  are  the  corn,  sugar  cane,  cacao,  rice,  tobacco,  bananas  and  some  others  what  are  not  the  major  ones.  The  Nicaraguan  industry  include  alcohol,  cigars, cigarettes, textiles,  leather  rubber  goods,  cement,  and  the  dairy  products.  The  imports are  those  what  the  country  can't  produce,  such  as  machinery,  cotton  goods,  petroleum  products,  chemicals  and  iron  and  steel  product.  The transportation  is  concentrated  almost  entirely  in  the  western  part  of  the country.  There  are  no  railroads  or  highways  into  or  in  eastern  Nicaragua.

In  Nicaragua  there  being  emergency  democracy.  The  Congress  has  42 deputies,  a  senate  of  16  members,  plus  some  past  presidents.  The constitution  is  outlawed  by  the  Communist  Party.

The  first  man  who  explored  Nicaragua  was  a  Spanish  man  called  Gil González  de  Avile  in  1521.  He  landed  at  the  western  coasts.  He  was followed  by  another  Spanish  explorer  called  Fernandez  de  Cordoba  in  1522.  Lots  of   immigrants  fled  the  country  after  the exploration  and  Nicaragua  became  a  Spanish  colony.  In  1838  a  union called  the  Central  American  Federation  what  formed  in  the  1820's,  broke  apart.  So  the  countries,  it  contained,  includes  those  in  Central  America  and  Mexico,  dissolved  thus  Nicaragua,  with  those  other  ones,  became  a  independent  country.  With  this  independence  Nicaragua  was  freed  not  just  from the  union,  but  also  from  Spain.  In  the  following  years  William Walker  became  the  president.  After  that  the  brilliant  Liberals  came  to  power  in  1893  and  was  the  leader  of   the  country  until  1909.  By 1913  under  the  presidency  of  Adolfo  Díaz  order  had  been  restored and  Nicaragua's  finances  placed  in  charge  of  American  experts.  The United  States  Marines  was  on  power  from  1912  to  1925.  Adolfo  Díaz  become  president  again  in  1929.  Now  he  was  the  real  leader  of  the country.  In  1937  Somoza  became  president  and  had  the  possition until  1947,  but  in  that  time  (in 1947)  he  retained  the  president  of war,  controlled  the  whole  National  Guard  and  ruled  the  country  through  puppet  presidents.  Then  the  Sandinista  National  Liberation  Front  (FSLN)  formed  to  fight  the  Somoza  regime,  ousted  Somoza  in 1979.  The  United  States  promoted  subversive  activity  against  the government  in  1982  and  actively  supported  the  counter-revolutionary forces.  The  United  States'  president,  Ronald  Reagan,  denounced  the Sandinista  government,  but  the  FSLN  won  the  assembly  elections.  In 1987  a  Central  American  peace  agreement  was  co-signed  by  the Nicaraguan  leaders  but  the  agreement  failed  in  1988.  Nicaragua  held talks  with  the  Contra  rebel  leaders.  Then  a  hurricane  left  180,000  people  homeless.  The  Demobilization  of  the  rebels  and  the  release  of  former  Somozan  supporters  took  place  in  1989,  the  cease  ended.  In 1990  the  FSLN  was  defeated  by  the  UNO  (National  Opposittion Union),  the  United  States-backed  coalition,  Violeta  Chomorro  was  elected  president.  


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