The stratosphere is the second layer of the atmosphere just above the troposphere. This layer contains the ozone layer-an important absorber of the sun´s ultraviolet radiation
Phytoplankton are the microscopic plants that live on the surface of every body of water and provide food for most creatures living in their habitats
The mesosphere is one of the layers of the atmosphere that´s situated at about 50-85 km (32-53 miles). This layer of the atmosphere contains one of the coldest regions in the atmosphere;therefore is the colder region in the atmosphere and the coldest place on earth
The ionosphere is a layer of the earth that is electrified; this permits the refraction and reflection of radio waves throughout the planet. This article explores the ionosphere and its different regions.
The Monarch Butterfly is one of the most extraordinary insects for its beautiful colors and migration patterms. The northern butterfly is known to fly for more than three thousand miles every year
The troposphere is the layer that lies above the surface of the earth and it contains most of the gases that compose the earth´s atmosphere. It´s also where photosynthesis and respiration occurs
Gemini is one of the twelve constellations of the Zodiac and is identified by its two brightest stars-Castor and Pollux, known as the twins. This constellation is best viewed, in the northern hemisphe
The Geminids is an annual meteor shower and it's known as one of the most intense showers. There are usually anywhere from 80 to 120 meteors every hour in the sky and the peak occurs on December 13-14
The remains of comet Encke give rise to some unusually bright meteors best seen on moonless nights between October and December.
Volcanoes occur due that the lava inside the magma chamber finds its way out through a crack in the earth´s crust. They are categorized based on lava fluidity and their explosive eruption
Extremophiles are living organisms that can live in extreme environments that other organisms are not capable of withstand. There are usually found in settings that have extreme temperatures
Simple way to teach WH questions to ESL students.
The gray whale migration occurs every year along the west coast of Canada and the United States. This migration is considered the longest migration of any marine mammal and covers nearly 12000 miles.
The body possesses a natural system of stimulation that provide feelings of pleasure. Neurotransmitters of pleasure flow naturally in the system
Most organisms living on earth depend on the sun to obtain their energy, but other organisms live very deep i n the ocean and are unable to use sunlight for energy; they use chemicals to survive there
All life on earth is interconnected. Small organisms, such as algae and phytoplancton are eaten by bigger animals. Algae and phytoplancton are said to be primary producers, which in turn are eaten.
Sheriff Woody Pride is one of the main characters in the movie, ¨Toy Story.¨ The occurrences of this character confer lots of action to the movie.
A compass is a device used for navigation. A compass will always point to the magnetic north pole. It can be used for navigation.
The telephone game is a very amusing game played by several people in a row. The game consists in passing a message that is whispered to the next player in line.
Praying mantises are predatory animals that feed on all kinds of insects. They´re beneficial to farms as they feed on insects that could become plagues.
A compass rose is a device used in navigation. It pinpoints the four cardinal points: north, south, east, and west. Learn how to draw one in MS Paint!
Drawing a ship is an interesting and fun task. Drawing a ship may help you get acquainted with the different parts composing a ship.
An anemometer is an instrument for measuring the wind's speed. An anemometer may consist of three of more cups, although the three cup anemometer will give a more accurate measurement of the wind's speed.
Gorillas are some of the most amazing animals in the world. Drawing a gorilla it's an easy process that requires little drawing skills and MS paint program.
An umbrella tent can be handy in a number of ways. To create your own umbrella tent, you'll only need three or four items and a few minutes of your time.
Chemosynthetic bacteria are organisms whose primary source of energy comes from the chemical reactions of inorganic molecules.
Drawing people kissing is easy if you make use of your drawing skills and an editing graphic program such as MS Paint.
On Valentine's Day, there are many things that may come to mind when trying to please your loved one. Why not give away decorative Valentine Hearts that can be easily created in MS Paint?
The verb to be is one of the most extensively used verbs in the English language and is one of the first verbs ESL students should learn. The verb to be allows students of English to create simple sentences to communicate.
MS paint is a very simple graphic design program that can be used to draw some exceptional drawings; for example, the head of an anime girl.
Drawing a cow in MS paint is a very simple process. Although MS paint is a very simple graphic application. it contains the necessary tools for creating exceptional drawing projects.
Drawing is not a dificult task to do. It all depends on what you intend to draw and the means you use to draw it, Macromedia Flash is an application that has the tools that can permit draw anything. In Macromedia Flash you can draw figures and shapes, ranging from a simple circle or rectangle to...
FL Studio is a music program that allows you to create music like a professional. The great variety of music arrangements that can be created with FL Studio are endless
The magnification of a telescope can be improved by using extra optical devices. A Barlow lens and other hand-made devices will allow you to amplify the image seen through the telescope lens
The passé composé is conjugated with the verbs avoir (to have) and être (to be) in French. Most verbs in French are conjugated with the verb avoir and only a number of verbs are conjugated with the verb être. The tense passé composé is used to describe actions in the past in the same way that...
The Mayas created magnificent cities and temple-pyramids, and did not use any machinery or animal force to build them, but only their hands and the materials, which were abundant in their region. They´re known for their achievements, in astronomy, mathematics, art and architecture.
Riding a motorcycle is an awesome experience. On a motorcycle, you can travel to many places, it´s very cheap to ride a motorcycle. Stopping after a long ride on a motorcycle allows you to stretch and relax, as well as to observe the scenery around. A motorcycle can be maintained in good...
The Mayas, who flourished during the classic period in the regions of the Yucatan Peninsula and Central America, had many achievements in art, sculpture, architecture and astronomy. The Mayas built most of their pyramids and temples in close alignment with the rising and setting of the Sun. The...
The Maya civilization began at around 2000 BC, and is thought to have reached its highest level of development during the Classic period from 250-900 AD. The Mayas developed a writing epigraphy and a calendar system superior to those developed by other civilizations. In the present, the Maya ruins...
The National Museum of History houses a vast collection of pre-Columbian old manuscripts and objects that illustrate almost 400 years of Mexican History. The museum exhibits more than 150,000 items, including documents, jewelry, armament, paintings, numismatics and flags, among other items. The...
The conquest of Mexico by the Spanish was an event that transformed the cultural, social, and religious aspects of an entire civilization.
Maximilian I was the second emperor of Mexico. He was a descendant of a Dynasty of European noble men called ¨the House of Habsburg¨ Maximilian Monarchy in Mexico lasted for three years after which he was captured and executed at Cerro de las Campanas.
The atmosphere is a thin layer of gases surrounding the surface of the Earth. The gases composing the atmosphere are distributed in a layer of approximately 150 km (93 miles).
Earthquakes result from the sudden shaking of the Earth, which is produced by the constant movement of tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Most earthquakes occur along oceanic and continental plate limits. During an earthquake seismic waves travel underground, along the earth's crust,...
Volcanoes are known to become active from time to time, and when they do, they may exhibit the power contained within the Earth's interior in the form of an eruption. There are varied types of eruptions. A volcano may exhibit only one type of eruption; however, some volcanoes may display a number...
Volcanic vents are fractures on the summit of a volcano through which lava is ejected. There are various types of volcanic vents. However, all vents connect to the magma chamber, which is a pool of hot molten rock, to the vent on top of a volcano.
Volcanoes are geological ruptures in the earth's landscape that form due to natural internal forces acting inside the planet. Volcanoes can form on land or underwater, and most form near tectonic plate boundaries.
Noctilucent Clouds are the highest clouds in the Earth´s atmosphere. They are composed of tiny ice crystals, and they can be observed just a little before sunrise or after sunset. They were first observed in 1885, and have remained since, raising some questions about their origin.
Moonbows are natural atmospheric phenomena that occur by the interaction between sunlight reflected off the surface of the moon and water droplets suspended in the atmosphere
Snowflakes are formed from aggregations of ice crystals. Ice crystals from in the clouds when they freeze around tiny particles of dust in the atmosphere. The shape of a snowflake is determined by a variety of weather conditions, such as temperature, humidity and wind which is what finally will...
Auroras are luminous displays of lights most commonly seen in the arctic and antarctic regions. Auroras are produced by the interactions between high energetic particles from the Sun and the atoms and molecules composing Earth´s atmosphere. Their luminous displays can be seen at the temperate...
The red morning Sun is a great spectacle to watch. The sunlight that makes this possible is not scattered in the atmosphere, therefore, it is able to reach the eyes of an observer and offer a spectacular red dawn.
The phases of the Moon represent the illuminated fraction of the Moon´s surface that an observer is able to see from Earth. The Moon completes an orbit around Earth in 29.5 days in what is known as a lunar month.
Taurus is a constellation which can be seen in the night sky during the months of December and January. Taurus can be recognized by a V-shaped asterism known as the Hyades, and the giant red star Aldebaran
Planispheres are very useful tools to locate stars in the sky at any given time and date. Depending on your latitude, there are planispheres that can be used at Northern latitudes, and others for Southern latitudes.
These distances are measured in degrees and radians. The angular diameters of these objects are normally very small; therefore, it is better to represent them in degrees, arcminutes and arcseconds.
The celestial coordinates can assist at locating stars and constellations in the night sky. The celestial coordinates are used in the same way that geological coordinates are used on Earth.
The asteroid belt lies between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter. It is populated by small objects, ranging in sizes from a few centimeters to a few kilometers in diameter. The biggest of this objects is Ceres, also considered a dwarf planet.
The inner planets all share similar characteristics. They lie within 1.5 astronomical units from the Sun.
The astronomical unit AU is used to measure distances in the solar system. To measure greater distances, astronomers use the parsec. The light year is derived from the parsec.