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Gems and Jewels

Updated on December 6, 2012

Gemstones of the World

There are hundreds of precious and semi-precious gems in the world.

It would be impossible to feature them all in one place but this lens will cover a wide range of  precious and semi-precious gems.  

Precious gemstones

What makes a gemstone Precious?

Traditionally the precious stones were Diamond, Sapphire, Emerald and Ruby.

Since ancient times these gems highly prized for there beauty and scarcity.

It is also interesting to note that these are some of the hardest gems in the world.

Recently Tanzanite and Alexandrite have been added to the list of Precious gems due to their popularity, rarity and hardness.


Diamonds are the hardest of all natural gems. It is a 10 on the Mohs scale, the highest rank a gem can have.

Diamonds are not the rarest gem in the world (not even close) nor are they the most expensive.

Diamonds are not even scares. The supply of Diamonds is controlled by the Diamond Cartels in South Africa to keep the price inflated artificially high.


When most people hear the word Sapphire they think Blue, but Sapphires come in every color of the Rainbow except red. Red Sapphires are Rubies.

Sapphires and Rubires are the second hardest of all the gems. They are a 9 on the Mohs scale.

Sapphires are found in India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, Brazil and Africa. The best Sapphires come from Ceylon.

For more Information click here


Rubies are one of the most expensive and sought after of all gems. Rubies have been loved for thousands of years. In ancient India, stories circulated that God created the Ruby and then created men to own it.

Rubies come in all shades of red and reddish pink. The most valued color is pure red with a hint of blue, known as "pigeon's blood" red.

Rubies are an 9 on the Mohs scale.

For more Information click hear


Emeralds have been known and loved for at least 5000 years.

Emeralds occur in a variety of green colors, from a light luminescent blue/green to deep rich emerald green. Chromium and Vanadium are what give Emeralds their extraordinary color. A fine Emerald should glow from within, as the one shown does.

The Best Emeralds come from the Muzo, Coscuez and Chivor mines in Colombia South America

Emeralds have a hardness of 8 on the Mohs Scale.

For more information click here


The gemstone variety of Zoisite

Tanzanite is one of the newest gemstones on the market. Discovered in 1967 in the Merelani Hills near Arusha in the north of Tanzania it was celebrated as The Gemstone of the 20th century'

Tanzanite is rare and has only been found in one small area on this planet. Some say the known mines are starting to play out.

Tanzanite is considered and excellent investment as the mines close down, that price for fine Tanzanite

will only go up.

For more information click here

Tanzanite is a 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale


Alexandrite the original color change gem

Discovered in 1830 in Russia and named after Czar Alexander II, who was then Crown Prince of Russia, Alexandrite appears to change color under different forms of light. It can look red when viewed in candle light, green when viewed in fluorescent light and blue green in sunlight.

Alexandrite are rare and only found in a few places in the world. Raw or Rough Alexandrite crystals when found and usually small, under 1 carat in size. Crystals above 5 carat are almost never found. Large faceted Alexandrite gems are some of the most valuable gems in the world.

Alexandrite have a hardness of 8.5 on the Mohs scale.

For more information click here


Pictures and information on Birthstones

Today the common Birthstones are as follow

January –Garnet


March-Aquamarine or Bloodstone


June- Pearl or moonstone

July- Ruby

August- Peridot


October-Opal or Tourmaline

November-Topaz or Citrine

December-Zircon, blue Topaz or Turquoise

The Traditional Birthstones are as Follows

January –Garnet


March- Bloodstone


June- Alexandrite

July- Ruby

August- Sardonyx


October- Tourmaline


December-Zircon, Lapis lazuli or Turquoise


Quartz is the most Common of all the gem Varieties

Did you know Amethyst is a type or Quartz? So is Citrine. What about Jasper? Yes, it's Quartz too!

These are some of the Major Varieties of Quartz


Multi-coloured, banded Chalcedony, semi-translucent to translucent.


Purple, transparent


Translucent green chalcedony with small inclusions of mica that shimmer.


Reddish orange chalcedony, translucent


Any cryptocrystalline quartz but generally only used for white or lightly colored gems.


Yellow to reddish orange to brown, greenish yellow


Opaque chalcedony, impure, with interesting inclusions that often form pictures.

Milk quartz

White, translucent to opaque


Dark-brown, opaque

Onyx Jet Black, Green, or Orange brown translucent to opaque

Prasiolite Leek green to Mint green, transparent

Rose quartz all shades of pink transparent to translucent

Smoky quartz

Brown to grey, transparent to opaque

Tiger's eye

gold to red-brown coloured quartz with a Cat's eye effect called "chatoyancy"

Tiger's eye

The Chrysoberyl Species of gems

Chrysoberyl Gems are Alexandrite, Cat's eye and yellow, green and brown Chrysoberyl.


Green Chrysoberyl

Cat's Eye

Which Birthstone is most popular

What is your Birthstone?

See results

With 50 + lenses on Squidoo

Start Your Gemstone Collection today!

Start your collection with as little as 5 carats or really go for it and get 5000 carat!

Please tell us what you think. If you like this lens, please vote for it. If you really, really like it please hit the diig this - Please sign in

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    • profile image


      6 years ago

      Nice lens, don't know much about gemstones but I do enjoy looking at them.

    • dahlia369 profile image


      6 years ago

      Another great gem resource page, thank you!! :)

    • profile image


      7 years ago

      What a wonderful collection of lenses on gems you have, including this one!

    • Heather426 profile image

      Heather Burns 

      7 years ago from Wexford, Ireland

      Awesome lens aobut gems and jewels! I love rocks of all kinds and have a pretty huge collection.

    • pixelposy profile image


      7 years ago

      I so want to rake my fingers through that photo of mixed gemstones!

    • saraih26 profile image


      7 years ago

      Loved the beautiful colors!

    • dwnovacek profile image


      7 years ago

      Very informative lens with gorgeous photos. Angel Blessings!

    • Blackspaniel1 profile image


      7 years ago

      Nice lens.

    • KokoTravel profile image


      7 years ago

      Thanks so much for the information!

    • pixelposy profile image


      7 years ago

      Nice lens, you have a ton of great info. I didn't realize Tanzanite was such a "young" gemstone. Also interesting to note that the highest prized gems aren't always the rarest. Learned a lot, thanks!

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      This article has been able to cover a wide range of precious and semi-precious gems. Nice lens.

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Wow and OOOH...I appreciate all the possibilities and pictures you put here!

    • PaulaMorgan profile image

      Paula Morgan 

      8 years ago from Sydney Australia

      wow you have done a lot of work on gems.. I am sure I will be back

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      A very nice resource lens to all of your other gems and jewels lenses Lady. Thumbs-up!

      Your lenses are so pretty with with the colorful photos the sparkle.

    • eclecticeducati1 profile image


      8 years ago

      Lots of great info on gemstones. Nice lens!

    • profile image


      8 years ago

      Very interesting lens....5 stars! Thank you. Please visit my lens on vintage costume jewellery


    • EelKat13 profile image


      9 years ago

      Great lens you got here! I've just added it to The Lensography Index.


      Keep up the good work!


    • profile image


      10 years ago

      Great Lens!

      Sell on eBay, visit my website for free advertising doing the eBay Auction Bump!

      Add your online store or website to my Top 100 Shopping Sites!

    • Lizblueberry profile image


      10 years ago

      Great informative lens. My birthstone is ruby but I still love diamonds!

    • profile image


      10 years ago

      my birthstone is Ruby. wonderful lens here. congrats!

    • profile image


      10 years ago

      When the diamond is loose it can be evaluated by yourself or a qualified independent diamond appraiser using the latest diamond evaluation and grading tools. The diamond can be inspected from every single angle to make certain that it is indeed of the quality and beauty that you desire. This is something that cannot be done with the same degree of effectiveness once the diamond has been set in a ring.

      Use to compare more than 400 000 loose diamond from 11 most reputable online retailers.

    • sisterra profile image


      10 years ago

      Beautful lens - from a fellow stores board member.

    • hearthealth lm profile image

      hearthealth lm 

      10 years ago

      Great close ups! I myself own a blue cat's eye bracelet. Theres seems to be trace of molding, so whos to know if its fake or not? ;-) 5 flamin' and favin'!

      Looking forward to meeting you at my art glass and carnival glass lenses!

    • blue22d profile image


      10 years ago

      Great lens. I love stones and I've enjoyed this one. Got a moment, stop by and visit my lenses. Thanks, and five stars to ya.

    • Lady Gotrocks profile imageAUTHOR

      Lady Gotrocks 

      10 years ago

      May's birthstone is Emerald

    • religions7 profile image


      10 years ago

      Lovely lens, but doesn't MAY have it's own birthstone?

    • profile image


      10 years ago

      very interesting lens and beautiful gems and jewels.

    • WordWhisperer LM profile image

      WordWhisperer LM 

      10 years ago

      Great Lens with tons of information on one of my favourite subjects.



    • profile image


      10 years ago

      5 stars for you. Good resource for gemstones.

    • profile image


      10 years ago

      Wonderful 5-Star lens! Such beautiful gems. Please feel free to stop by my Unique Handmade Jewelry lens.



      Handmade Beaded Jewelry Gallery

    • profile image


      10 years ago

      All your gem lenses are great, 5 stars!

    • profile image


      10 years ago

      Fantastic lens packed with information! Definitely 5 stars!

    • EvieJewelry profile image


      11 years ago

      5 star lens. saw you on squidu discussion boards. lots of great information. Check us out for great jewelry.

    • profile image


      11 years ago

      I'm fascinated by all the beauty I see on your lense. Especially Tiger's Eye! My personal favorite!

      Thanks from Paul at and Learning to Invest.

    • profile image


      11 years ago

      lovely gems and jewels. Good infos too! 5 stars

    • Gatsby LM profile image

      Gatsby LM 

      11 years ago

      5* for all this great information! Best Natural Dog Food

    • DogWhisperWoman1 profile image


      11 years ago

      5 stars! well done and great information here! Dog Whisper Woman

    • ShawnsBidness profile image


      11 years ago

      I'll take one of each please. Another great lens!

    • Karendelac profile image


      11 years ago

      Filled with 5 stars of information. Not to mention some of a girls best friends. All the Best, Karen at Karen's Kinkade Art Store

    • profile image


      11 years ago

      my precious, precious lens. Can't handle them once, interesting topic. My birthstone is Ruby. 5*

    • aka-rms profile image

      Robin S 

      11 years ago from USA

      So many gems, so little time! 5*

    • KimGiancaterino profile image


      11 years ago

      This is nice with everything in one place. I'll add it to my lensography lensroll so I can find you anytime!

    • profile image


      11 years ago

      Great lens...5 stars!

    • profile image


      11 years ago

      Lady_gotrocks, you rock! Your lenses are awesome and inspiring! :)

    • Signhappy profile image


      11 years ago

      Another beautiful and informative lens.


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