Like diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus is a hormonal disorder. The hormone involved is antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin). This hormone is secreted from the posterior pituitary gland and promotes the reabsorption of water in the kidneys. In diabetes insipidus, there is a deficiency in the secretion of this hormone and this leads to excessive urination.
Diabetes insipidus is a disorder characterized by the excretion of very dilute urine. As in diabetes mellitus, there is an excessive output of urine accompanied by extreme thirst. Unlike diabetes mellitus, however, there is no sugar in the urine and the blood sugar level is normal.
The substance that normally influences the kidney's capacity to conserve water and form concentrated urine is the antidiuretic hormone called vasopressin. This hormone is secreted by the hypothalamus, a small area of the brain located just above and in front of the pituitary gland. When the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland is diseased or injured, the secretion of vasopressin is decreased or stopped. As a result, large amounts of water are lost from the body, usually 9 liters or more a day. If the patient does not counteract this loss by drinking much water, his blood volume falls, and shock, dehydration, and death may follow.
The known causes of diabetes insipidus include tumors in or near the base of the brain, head injury, and certain brain diseases, such as meningitis or encephalitis. In many cases, however, the cause of the disease is unknown.
Diabetes Insipidus, a rare disease, is characterized by the passage of excessive quantities of urine of low specific gravity and not containing glucose. The disease is caused by the total lack of the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), which controls the passage of water from the kidneys. The unfortunate sufferer may pass 20 liters of dilute urine a day and have to drink this amount of fluid to stay alive. Fortunately, ADH treatment can correct this.
Diabetes Insipidus is a disease characterized by the passage of large quantities of very dilute urine. Because of excessive loss of water, the body tissues become dehydrated, and the patient has an enormous thirst. The cause of the disease is injury or disease of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland or the nerve fibers that connect the pituitary to the hypothalamus, a part of the brain.
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