At the beginning of a sentence it's quite clear we use a capital letter (ie.I), but in the middle of a sentnce do I use the small i when it's on it's own (i) or do I use it's larger brother the capital (I)?? also when I break a sentence with a comma (,) is it correct to use "and" after the comma as the follow on ie..end, and then he said??
This is a(two)questions to hubbers that have studied English at school, unfortunately I didn't.
Always capitalize the I when you are talking about yourself.
The rules about commas are more complicated, since they are used in so many different ways. If you are providing a list, you can use the word and. For example, I like apples, oranges, bananas, and strawberries.
In your example, I guess it depends on the first part of the sentence. He picked up his bag and said he was going home. No comma necessary there. She said she wouldn't, and then he said, "why not?".
Thanks for the explanation, I found it easy to follow.
In Millionaire's second example, you won't need to use 'and' before the word 'then'. You will use either but not both and no comma is necessary.
I learnt that 'I' is always a capital. The lower case has been adopted in text-speak, it seems but then that's a whole new language! I teach it as 'I' am the most important person and therefore it's a capital. There should not be a comma before the final item of a list, before the 'and'; a comma is a pause, 'and' is a conjunction (it joins two parts of a sentence and therefore needs no comma).
On the subject of grammar - its v it's; if you want to say 'it is' then you write it's; if you want to talk about something belonging to it, then you write its. Example: You use a spoon for soup - it's one example of its use. (It is one example of the use of it (a spoon).
Hope this is clear!
I jsut got a book[ on kindle for pc] for 77p called "Write better,right now" by Daphne Dangerlove.It covers all this.I found I'd forgotten my grammar,
Kindle for pc is free to download.I prefer real books but it's good to get a few thingson kindle which you can read on your computer screen.
The letter I is always capitalized when used alone. Try this link to find some answers: http://www.refdesk.com
Good question, by the way. I know, that isn't even a sentence. It should read, "By the way, that is a great question."
The word "I" is always capitalized.
Yeah, "and" is after the comma.
"One time, two items, and three items."
In British English, a comma would generally not be placed before the "and" in:
"One item, two items and three items."
The practice of inserting that extra comma is known as the Harvard comma or Oxford comma. It appears that in US English, there is disagreement on its use: Chicago Manual of Style promotes such use, while the AP Stylebook, used as a guide by many journalists, does not.
That's how I learned it too. When using the "and" the comma is removed.
All "I"s must be capitalized whether at the beginning or middle of a sentence.
Yours was also a fine and well expained comment
I think it's more than three gets the comma. One, two, three, and four. If three and four are a joined phrase, it's considered one item as in One, two, three and four as in melbel's example below.
Millionaire is right about the 'and' thing. There are cases where you don't need the comma.
"I like school, pets, traveling, and some crayons."
"I like school, cats and dogs, traveling, and red and blue crayons.
See how in the second example, I have "cats and dogs?" They are like objects (both a kind of pet,) so I'm grouping them together. The same with "red and blue crayons." They are both crayons. Also, not how the bit with "red and blue crayons" has two "ands." The first 'and' is to show that this is the last grouping int he list. The second "and" shows that red and blue crayons go together as one item on the list.
To simplify, the first list has four items:
The second list has four items (even though it is comprised of six different objects):
cats and dogs
red and blue crayons
To differentiate the two ands, you could also write it like this, but it's not recommended in formal writing (such as hubs and newspapers):
"I like school, cats & dogs, traveling, and red & blue crayons.
You always capitalize "I" when it stands alone because it is a title or name.
If you have the word "and" then you don't have to use a comma but you can, both are acceptable in America.
In example: I am going to the market, the park and the movies.
I've learned a lot by asking this question and I thank yourself and all the others that left comments.
Take care Pamela.
My golden rule for commas before the conjunction "and" is if the phrase that follows is an independent clause, use the comma, but if "and" connects the last thing in a list, do not use it. Examples include:
I had a candy bar, banana and chocolate milk for breakfast. (Ewww...maybe I should change my diet, but no comma use here before the word, "and.")
I love candy bars, and candy bars love me! (Both phrases are sentences in their own right, thus, I use the comma before the "and.")
Here is a site that explains different ways to use commas correctly:
I have seen an 'i' used in lower case on many occasions if being used as part of a numbered list, e.g.
(i) The cat
(ii) The dog
(iii) The budgie
which I believe is correct also (in that context):
It looks like Millionaire Tips has said it all. Commas are a tough one! I wrote a hub about the proper usage of commas you could check out. You'll find it listed under my profile.
I shall look at that Susie, thanks, although I was referring to use of the letter 'I' or 'i' not commas in my response
Edit: I did look, but couldn't find your hub on 'commas', but as I said, I was referring to 'I' or 'i' usage in my comment, so I guess it isn't that relevant. You can always give the name of your hub here without actually linking to it if you think it could be beneficial to other hubbers though.
I'll be popping over and checking out that hub on commas.
Here a couple other things worth noting that I constantly see misused. Sorry, if I am using this platform for my personal grammar peeves.
It's means it is. Its is a pronoun for a company or some other noun. A good check is if you use it's, re-read the sentence using it is. If it doesn't make sense, don't use the apostrophe. Also, a company is always its, never their. Many people think, and therefore write, that because companies are comprised of many people, they should use their to describe "their marketing plan," "their vision for the future." If you are talking about a single entity, like, for example, J&J's marketing plan, the pronoun always should be "its marketing plan," "its vision for the future."
This one has nothing to do with your question, or post, but it gets me every time because I work with data. When I see companies that specialize in data that write "Data Rocks," or "The data shows," I immediately turn off from the message. Datum is, and data are...the data show and data rock! I think the same thing is true of media...the media are biased, for example.
Now, someone correct me if I am wrong, but people are always hanged, they are never hung. When someone was hanged from a rope to death, as you may want to do with me after writing all of this, that person was not hung, as a picture may be hung, rather that person was hanged.
One I am ashamed to say I only found out about yesterday from my Step Father is the use of a comma before a name when speech marks are being used around the text in question, even though it seems to read oddly if you literally pause at the comma like you would normally, e.g. "Please don't let me down on this, John" Harry implored or "You know I trust you, Jane" insisted Ken.
I had to admit I still was doubtful about this until he showed me several examples in a book, and then additionally pulled out his book of punctuation and grammar and showed me the actual reference to this use of the comma.
I came across this today. It totally describes why I use the Oxford comma:
Thanks Melbel but I've just had my eggs, toast, and orange juice.
Ghaleach...sorry to talk about this here, but I was looking for your recent Hub that you either removed, or HP removed. It is a subject on which I am basing a fictitious murder story, so of course, I clicked on, but then it said the Hub was removed. I am just curious what happened, if you don't mind sharing?
It really has sadden me, but the powers that be have unpublished my hub. I have done a drastic edit function. There are no pic's with children of Child abuse and I have replaced one video. I feel that with all the editing it has taken away the shock effect that I was looking for to make people sit up and take notice. It might havesaved a child from further beatings.
Thanks for the interest.
That is sad. Unfortunately because of our PC-ness, those who speak out against child abuse are censored while the monsters seem to still get away with it as evidenced by the recent realizations at Penn State. Our society needs to be shocked. Too often, victims are swept under the rug. The only reason we have heard about Penn State and the Catholic Church is because they are large institutions that lawyers are willing to sue. For every Penn State or Catholic Church victim, there are thousands more who are abused and molested by individuals without large bank accounts that have no recourse and who must live with what has been done to them without any justice. It is a sad situation indeed. I am angered that your hub has been silenced. I have been writing a book specifically addressing the topic of the inherent danger of ignoring child abuse--it is a tale of murder and revenge, which is fiction, but as a victim myself, I am using real feelings and actual events to inform this shocking portrayal of what really goes on in our neighbor's homes--things we would rather ignore. Thank you for trying--don't let this stop you.
Does this cartoon mean that without the Harvard comma, the poor eggs and toast were not eaten, but rather, the sentence without the comma really means, "I had eggs," (he told) the toast and orange juice. This is very interesting. I may have to change my no-comma-before-the-and-in-a-list-rule and start using that Harvard comma-thingy. I never thought about it in this way. Thank you very much melbel. I learn something new every day. You have forever changed me.
Interesting thread. With all these intelligent answers, it has turned out to be a pleasant experience thus far.
I did not get that part about eggs and toast, somebody, please, explain.
With out the last comma added, it sounds like he is addressing Toast and Orange Juice (their names) - saying to them that he had no eggs - not merely talking about whether he had toast and orange juice (the items).
Thanks, WE, but I STILL DON't GET IT!
How can you address Toast and Orange Juice? No sense! I am so dumb today, it's not even funny!
Example A: "I went for a walk with Nancy, Peter, and Stan." (It is clear that he went for a walk with all three).
Example B: "I went for a walk with Nancy, Peter and Stan." (It is unclear whether (1) he went for a walk with all three or whether (2) he is telling Peter and Stan that he went for a walk with Nancy.)
That was what the example above intends to show - seems to me.
That is a great way of explaining it Examiner. When I first saw the cartoon, it took me some time to "get it." Metaphorically speaking, looking at the eggs sentence with and without the Harvard comma was like looking at that pictures that can either be an old lady wearing a hood, or a young lady wearing a hat. It is the same picture, but you have to look at it with an entirely different perspective.
JuliaFine, thanks, I am glad we are on the same page. That is an awesome illustration. I think I'll opt for...
The way I understand it is that the old way is a comma before and when listing 3 or more items. The new way or modern way is to leave it out. The reader is to understand that it's a list of items. The long way or another way to write is to put "and" in place of each comma:
It takes time, effort, and a good deal of money.
It takes time and effort and a good deal of money.
Use a comma to separate the two main clauses in a compound sentence when they are joined by and. Both parts of the sentence can stand alone so the comma is place before and. However, "if the first clause of a compound sentence is short, the comma may be omitted before the conjunction."
Their prices are low and their service is efficient.
The above info was taken directly from The Gregg Reference Manual by William A. Sabin, seventh edition. This is old so there may be a more recent edition. This is my grammar bible. I recommend this book for everyone. It's even fun just to sit and read and marvel at grammar. Great stuff. Published by Macmillan/McGraw-Hill.
@Specialist5 Thank you for this. I found it at Amazon and there is a newer addition. Kind of pricey. The Kindle edition is $47. 95 I believe. But, it would be worth it.
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