Did they teach from just the Torah in Jesus' time or from the Old Testament as we know it?
If it was from the Old Testament, how did they reconcile the book of Ruth, the prophet Huldah and Wisdom (personified as female) with their view of women? Would they have referred to these texts?
The Bible usually answers these questions itself.
Lu:24:27: And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
Lu:24:44: And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.
Joh:1:17: For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.
Torah is Old Testament
The Torah is the first 5 books of the Old Testament,
It deals with creation, the fall of mankind and the journey back to God. The Hebrew/Aramaic was translated to Helenic aka Greek, Latin and English. So much was messed up in the translations. Yeshua (Jesus) Taught from the Torah.
The Old Testament is not faithful to the first five books of the Torah it was based from. Jesus learned the Torah and taught the Torah. All of his teachings can be traced to teachings that were in existence before his time, based on Jewish mysticism. He was able to perceive their true meaning and communicate it in words that even fishermen can understand..
The previous answers are correct. There was no "old Testament" until roughly 400-600 years after Jesus died, when the new "church" codified your new Testament with ours. The Jewish Tanakh, contains: The Five Books of Moses, Prophets, and Writings. What you term as the "old Testament" which is actually quite an insulting terminology.
Jesus also quoted the Oral Torah which is enveloped in the Talmud, and he was a Kabbalist, (Jewish Spirituality), but what you should know is he was a Rabbi.
The Hebrews have The Torah the first five books
They also have the Prophets Psalms Proverbs.
It is recorded in Matthew (I think) Yahshua (Jesus) read Isaiah to the people out of the Prophets
Deborah Sexton made a very good point also below...
As it was the Book of Prophets or the "Nevi'im" (second part of the TaNaKh), that was probably more frequently referred to in other scripture when being quoted (especially the Book of Isaiah ).
We are meant to understand that The Holy Bible IS the actual "Word of God", divinely inspired and written by the Holy Spirit through man. To see this (without just sheer Faith alone) we must then look at the Bible in its complete context historically and spiritually for what it truly is. read more
I'm a Messiah Jew. I'm a Jew. The Torah is the books of Genesis (the creation) through Malachi ( G-d prophecy of the end times and His return). The Torah was written during the period after Malachi before the birth of Yeshua. It was derived by scribes (2) from each tribe of Isreal along with others who were witnesses being a total of (72) individuals.
The law of G-d giving to Moses was the standard rule to follow along with prayer and songs. The holiday celebrations represented the former readings from scrolls to relay the acts of those before them performed. Yeshua read from the Torah (the scrolls). The New Testament derived from the scrolls that was written by the disciples of Yeshua and later (300-400) years after Yeshua death was rewritten by the christians whom after review of the scrolls written by the Jews.
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