Century old companies and Institutes. How they survive? What's the secret of sustainability?
In US- Ford, GE , UK Rolls-Royce, Germany--BMW, India, Ta ta, Birla . These companies have been founded by Engineers or technicians. They work hard and faced challenges, but diversified operations and employed people and generated wealth.Modern science, technologies had been created and new civilian advanced industrial culture and society had been formed. Creation of capitalism, charities, welfare, philanthropy are the outcome this process.I think most of them groomed tier children or new generation in perfect mold to lead organization. Creativity was their lifetime job, so they survived .
you can either off a product/service that people need cheaply or you can offer the same product/service and make it desirable, all the companies you've listed do just that. Ford, Tata and Birla do the former and BMW do the later, as well as a bit of the former.