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On the Finale of Species

Updated on June 30, 2016

Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published in 1859. Its impact on the understanding of the origin of human beings on Earth is far reaching. Its scientific theory of evolution suggested that life on Earth evolves through a process of natural selection and survival of the fittest . Based on the evidences observed and studied in nature , the advance in Biology , and the archeological findings over times, a clear picture of how human beings come into existence today presents itself that can be summarized in the following paragraphs.


1) Around 4.5 billion years ago, Earth was formed in our Solar System . Living things on Earth are enormously complex that did not leap fully-formed from the beginning.


2) Around 3.5 billion years ago, life originated in a series of small steps, each building upon the complexity that evolved previously. Simple organic molecules (nucleotide ) are the building blocks of life and must have been involved in its origin.

3) Around 3 billion years ago, the evolution of a membrane surrounding the genetic material kept the products of the genetic material close by and controlled the internal environment of this proto-cell. This breakthrough would have given rise to an organism much like a modern bacterium .

4) Around 2 billion years ago, some cells stopped going their separate ways after replicating and evolved specialized functions. They gave rise to Earth's first lineage of multi-cellular organisms, such as the 1.2 billion year old fossilized red algae.

5)     Around 600 million years ago, the vertebrate (with internal skeleton) and invertebrate (with no backbone) animals started to proliferate in the oceans.

 6)     Around 450 million years ago, The bony fish split into their two major groups:

-        The lobe-finned fish with bones in their fleshy fins eventually give rise to amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

-        The ray-finned fish gives rise to most fish species living today.

 7)     Fish to Amphibians

8) Amphibians to reptiles

- The earliest amphibians appear in fossils that are over 370 million years old, whereas the origin of the reptiles lies about 320-310 million years ago when the first reptiles evolved from advanced reptiliomorph.

- A series of footprints from the fossil strata of Nova Scotia, dated to 315 million years show typical reptilian toes and imprints of scales. The tracks are attributed to Hylonomus.

 9)     Reptiles to mammals

 10)    Reptiles to birds

 11)      Land mammals to Aquatic mammals

 12)    Quadruped primates to Bipedal primates


1)     Experiments suggest that organic molecules (contain carbon) could have been synthesized in the atmosphere of early Earth and rained down into the oceans.


2)  All living things reproduce, copying their genetic material and passing it on to their offspring. The ability to copy the molecules that encode genetic information is a key step in the origin of life - without it, life could not exist. This ability probably first evolved in the form of an RNA molecule that could copy itself.

3) In the beginning, RNA did many jobs, storing genetic information, copying itself, and performing basic metabolic functions. Self-replication opened the door for natural selection. Once a self-replicating molecule formed, some variants of these early replicators would have done a better job of copying themselves than others. Through this process of continuous natural selection, small changes in replicating molecules eventually accumulated until a stable, efficient replicating system evolved.

4) Life had probably relied on RNA for most jobs. But everything changed when some cell or group of cells evolved to use different types of molecules for different functions:

- DNA (more stable than RNA) became the genetic material.

- Proteins (more efficient promoters of chemical reactions than RNA) became responsible for metabolic reactions in the cell.

5) The evolution of a membrane surrounding the genetic material kept the products of the genetic material close by and controlled the internal environment of this proto-cell.

6) There are two types of cells, Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells.

- Eukaryotic cells found in organisms such as plants and animals have a nucleus.

- Prokaryotic cells only have a nuclear area.


 7)     Nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell and contains DNA which forms chains of genetic materials called genes and organizes into chromosomes.

8)     DNA consists of two long strands of nucleotides in the form of a double helix. Each strand serves as template for the production of the complementary strand. DNA makes copy of itself by first splitting the two strands of nucleotides apart. Then, the enzyme in the cell synthesizes the new DNA by adding nucleotides matched to the template strand. In the process, two identical DNAs are produced.

 9)     Human being has 46 chromosomes while the fruit fly has only 4 chromosomes. But, the genes that are involved in building both are fundamentally the same. It is readily apparent at the embryonic stage of the diverse forms of life where same sort of processes are taking place.

10) Mutations are heritable structural changes in DNA. Mutations can also be classified on the basis of their functional consequences into loss-of-function or gain of-function that sometimes results in the creation of a new species.

11) Mutations can have a neutral, favorable or unfavorable effect on the species, with respect to the environment and its changes. For example, the peppered moth exists in both light and dark colors in the United Kingdom. During the industrial revolution many of the trees on which the moths rested became blackened by soot, giving the dark-colored moths an advantage in hiding from predators. This gave dark-colored moths a better chance of surviving to produce dark-colored offspring, and in just a few generations the majority of the moths were dark.


Life on Earth is dictated by the random mutation and the changing environmental conditions governed by the evolutionary process. The appearance of modern humans who are no longer at the mercy of either factor alters the whole evolutionary process. Modern humans are starting to experiment and to induce changes in DNA purposefully, thus, rendering the random mutation factor obsolete. Modern humans are also predicting and mediating the effects of the environmental changes. Biological changes that take millions of years to perfect are attempted by modern humans in the laboratory. Modern humans not only understand the evolutionary process that created them but also try to seek the meaning of the existence.

After 3.5 billion years of evolution, Life on Earth is no longer:

- Survival of the fittest,
- Dictated by random mutation,
- Controlled by the environmental changes.

Modern humans learn that love, compassion, and sacrifice are more important to ensure survival as an individual as well as a species. It now appears that Life on Earth has reached its final evolutionary stage with the modern human species.

With the realization of the purpose of existence and the understanding of how life is created, the modern human species has become a master of its own destiny and is ready to embark on a journey to seek out:

- Other dimensions of existence,
- Life and resources beyond the Earth and the Milky Way,
- How the Universe came into existence,
- How the building blocks of Life and the Laws that govern life came about.


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    • profile image

      Dov Henis 

      8 years ago

      New Era For Science Including Genomics ???

      From: Dov Henis

      Sent: Friday, April 13, 2012 10:43 PM

      To: genome biologists

      Subject: A new era for science including genomics ??? Please examine carefully…

      Yesterday, SN , after many years of refusing my similar postings, SN posted my following statement-comment:

      Biorhythms Schmiorythms

      Circadian Schmircadian sleep origin?

      Life sleeps because RNAs genesized, evolved from inanimate nucleotides into self-replicating nucleotides, organisms, of course long before metabolism evolved. They were then active ONLY during sunlight hours. Thus sleep is inherent for RNAs, even though, being ORGANISMS, they later adapted to when/extent sleep times are feasible just as we adapt to jetlag or night work time.

      Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

      Apr. 12, 2012 at 9:10am


      From: Dov Henis

      Sent: Saturday, April 14, 2012 9:05 AM

      To: genome biologists

      Subject: FW: A new era for science including genomics ??? Please examine carefully…

      Unbelievable?! Here’s another one…

      From: Dov Henis

      Sent: Sunday, April 08, 2012 9:06 PM

      To: ‘’

      Subject: On Pavlov and genes…

      Fatty Diet Leads To Fat-Loving Brain Cells

      Learn from Pavlov:

      Fatty diet lead to fat-loving RNA-nucleotides genes, Earthlife base primal ORGANISMS.

      Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)


      Since the above two statements are basis for the following statement, may it also soon pass the SN “peer review”… ?!

      USA Science? Re-Comprehend Origins And Essence

      • Higgs Particle? Dark Energy/Matter? Epigenetics? All YOK!

      • Earth-life is just another, self-replicating, mass format.

      • All mass formats follow natural selection, i.e. intake of energy or their energy taken in by other mass formats.

      • Evolution Is The Quantum Mechanics Of Natural Selection.

      • Quantum mechanics are mechanisms, possible or probable or actual mechanisms of natural selection.

      • Life’s Evolution is the quantum mechanics of biology.

      • Every evolution, of all disciplines, is the quantum mechanics of the discipline’s natural selection.


      Update Concepts-Comprehension…

      Earth life genesis from aromaticity-H bonding

      Universe-Energy-Mass-Life Compilation

      Seed of human-chimp genome diversity



      Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

    • profile image

      Dov Henis 

      9 years ago

      Earth Life Genesis@Aromaticity.Hydrogen Bonding


      Purines and pyrimidines are two of the building blocks of nucleic acids. Only two purines and three pyrimidines occur widely in nucleic acids.


      Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring.

      A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. Purines, including substituted purines and their tautomers, are the most widely distributed kind of nitrogen-containing heterocycle in nature.

      Aromaticity ( Kekule, Loschmidt, Thiele) is essential for the Krebs Cycle for energy production.



      Natural selection is E (energy) temporarily constrained in an m (mass) format.

      Natural selection is a universal ubiquitous trait of ALL mass spin formats, inanimate and animate.

      Life began/evolved on Earth with the natural selection of inanimate RNA, then of some RNA nucleotides, then arriving at the ultimate mode of natural selection – self replication of RNAs. ALL Earth life is evolved RNAs.

      Aromaticity enables good constraining of energy and good propensity to hydrogen bonding. The address of Earth Life Genesis, of phasing from inanimate to animate natural selection, is

      Aromaticity.Hydrogen Bonding.

      Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)

    • chenjdw profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from California

      Thanks for an interesting perspective.

    • profile image

      Dov Henis 

      9 years ago

      EarthLife Genesis By 2011 Data

      - Earth's primal ORGANISMS are RNAs, good Sun radiation absorption-constraint, self-replicating mass formats. Corroborating

      evidence: life's chirality and life's sleep.

      - All EarthLife is evolved RNAs. All self-replicators are organisms, including genomes. DNA selected for some genomes being

      energetically stabler than RNA.

      - Life's drive: RNA's natural selection, enhance-maintain Earth's biosphere, exploit-postpone Sun's and Earth's energy prior

      to their fueling universe expansion.

      - Drive of Life's evolution: Natural selection is ubiquitous for ALL mass-formats/spin-arrays; must ingest energy-or-mass to

      delay-postpone eventual own reconversion to energy, all of which is destined to fuel expansion of the universe. Universe

      expansion reconverts singularity's mass to energy. Eventually, as nearly all massfuel is consumed, expansion will be

      overcome by gravity to initiate re-empansion to singularity, reconverting ALL energy to ALL mass.

      Dov Henis

      (Comments From 22nd Century)

      Seed of Human-Chimp Genomes Diversity

      03.2010 Updated Life Manifest

      Evolution, Natural Selection, Derive From Cosmic Expansion

      Rethink Evolution/Natural Selection

    • chenjdw profile imageAUTHOR


      9 years ago from California

      Thanks for reading and commenting. I appreciate that very much.

      >Evolution occurs in small increments over great span of time. The first leap from inorganic matter to organic matter was hypothesized to happen during a period of drastic environmental changes that would have provided the energy and the ideal conditions.

      It is not known if there was any intermediate stage evolving between nucleotides with and without membrane. However, it was possible that the cumulative changes in the genetic material resulted in the building of a membrane or some other forms of protective skins.

      >Evolution Genetics Embryo's and our Common Ancestor's

      >That is correct, as other colored moths would probably have proliferated in other places where the environment was in their favor. During the studying of the wing spots (for mating purpose) on the fruit fly which has a life span of 30 days, the researchers identified regulatory elements in the DNA that influenced the specific gene that controlled the development of the wing spots. Changes (mutations) in these regulatory elements would cause the wing spots pattern to vary. So, it is logical to assume that similar mechanism at work for the existence of the different colored moths.

    • profile image

      Curious yet again 

      9 years ago

      In your step 11, peppered moth studies revealed nothing about mutations. Different colored moths already existed before the Industrial Revolution. No demonstratable mutations took place.

    • profile image

      Still curious 

      9 years ago

      By the way, in your step 9 you are providing an illustration that was proven fraudulent many years ago. Even the evolutionists don't use it any more.

    • profile image


      9 years ago

      Are you saying it took half a billion years from the spontaneous generation of 'life' to the spontaneus generation of a membrane to hold it all together?

      So, for about 500 million years the self-replicating nucleotides drifted aimlessly (they had no means of locomotion, I assume) and eventually a self-replicating membrane somehow formed around them?



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