Why didn't the Mongols or Ottomans conqueror all of Europe when they had the chance?
When Asia&MiddleEast was using fire arms in 13centry, Europe was still using bow and arrows. By 18th century, Asia&MIddleEast cannon & rockets range over 2km, Europe's cannon range was only 300 meters. till Europe caught with Asia & Middle East&surpass China in 19th century, Asia&MiddleEast could crush Europe as easy as Europe crush Native American&Africa. China was anti conquer and further away from Europe, so its understandable why they didn't attack. But Mongols&Ottomans pro conqueror and had colonized part of Europe, why didn't they conqueror all?
The Ottomans came pretty close. It took almost 200 years to stop the surging tide. They made it to the gates of Vienna. But it was a combination of factors. Being at war (even ones of conquest) will eventually wear an organization out. Europeans began to unite to fight a common enemy. And finally the technology reached central Europe and was turned on the Turks. I also can't forget geography turned into an ally. The Alps must have seemed daunting to a conqueror in those days. Granted they have been overcome before, but it was still a challenge. The Ottoman Empire did last several hundred years and its influence is still felt today in southern Europe.
As for the Mongols, internal division and geography caught up to them. They had a different style of governing and probably could not see an economic purpose to the conquest.
The Mongols were stopped by the forests of Eastern Europe, which were not conducive to their methods of travel and fighting.
The Ottomans tried very hard to be the new "Roman Empire". All of central Europe united against them to stop their expansion and then to start pushing them back. The Ottomans did keep the Venetians bogged down enough that it prevented them from becoming the world's first superpower.
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