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First Aid Training

Updated on July 20, 2016
The students familiarizing with adjunct devices during PRO CPR training.
The students familiarizing with adjunct devices during PRO CPR training.
AED Orientation and training
AED Orientation and training
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

First aid Facts

First aid is the immediate temporary care given to a victim of accident or illness before the availability of a physician is acquired. It is imperative that people should have proper training in First Aid since an emergency may happen anytime. Certain countries have incorporated in their local laws the need for first aid training to certain individuals working in companies, hotels, resorts, and other places of work. Knowing what to do in an emergency will make us confident. We may have not done a great impact in society but by aiding someone in an emergency, or teaching a person how to respond during an emergency is a truly rewarding job.

Safety First

Before approaching any person to help in an emergency, insure your safety first. There is no substitute for scene safety. The first thing to do is survey the scene for any hazards that could be dangerous to you, to the victim or to the bystanders. There could be hazards like incoming traffic, fire, possible explosion, electrocution, assailant, etc. Once the scene is safe, that is the only time that you can approach the victim and start your assessment of the victim or victims injuries or illness. As a professional responder,they call this the scene size up. This is very important since this will give you an idea of the situation or an impression of what has happened as well as the need to call for assistance from the Emergency Medical Services (EMS).

Call for Help.....

After conducting the scene survey, you have to remember that you cannot do it alone. So you have to call for EMS. In most countries they already have a designated number for emergency responders. Usually these are three digit numbers (eg. 911 in the U.S.) and are answered by dispatchers. This dispatchers in turn will dispatch to you the necessary personnel, equipments, vehicles depending on the nature of the emergency. It would be worthwhile to post this emergency numbers near your telephone at home, in the office or keep a copy of it in your wallet most especially if in your locality the 3 digit number is not in effect. It would be difficult to remember them during the situation. If your using a mobile phone, you don't have to worry a single thing since this gadgets are designed to call emergency numbers in your area. The universal mobile emergency number is 112.

Upon calling the dispatcher be prepared to answer the following questions:

  • your name and your phone number (some EMS system have caller ID and can record your call.)
  • location of the emergency
  • the nature of the emergency
  • number of victims
  • the victims condition

Do not hang up the phone until the dispatcher tell you to do so. Bear in mind that the dispatcher may advise you to provide care.


Consent must be acquired before you provide care so it is important that the person must conform to your offer for assistance. However, it would be a problem if assuming that the victim is unconscious or perhaps not in the position or not capable of making the right decision. Consent therefore is categorized into two:

  • Expressed consent - as long as the person is conscious and is capable of making decisions, the consent must be acquired before rendering care. It could either be verbal or a gesture like a simple nod. Bear in mind that there are victims who cannot talk during the accident.
  • Implied consent - any person who is unconscious or person not in the position to give consent like children, adults with mental illness is said to have given their consent already.

First aid simulation

Provide Care

Now that we have consent, we can now provide care. Remember that lifesaving techniques are effective only if started immediately. Proper assessment should be done to identify life threatening conditions and immediately this should be corrected immediately. The basics for proper assessment are the A,B,C's. Airway, Breathing and Circulation. Any problem encountered on these areas should be addressed right away. A persons brain without oxygen for more than 4 minutes could likely suffer brain damage. Remember the basic rules of 3's. "you can survive for 3 weeks without food, 3 minutes without water, but you cannot survive for more than 3 minutes without air". So it is imperative that a person without breathing should be given the necessary care in the soonest possible time. A severe bleeding in turn could result into shock which basically deprives the body tissues with oxygen rich blood which may result to death. We will be dealing with the step on how to assess the victim and deal with the different conditions as we go on.

Your Personal Protection

Certain conditions may hamper as from providing the best possible care. One of which is the fear of diseases. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is extremely low. However, it is advisable to have protective equipments to bring the risk further down. Diseases can be transmitted through the blood of an infected person, these are what we call blood-borne disease or through the air - airborne diseases.


Contact with infected persons blood may result to infection by one of the following blood-borne diseases

  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Human Immunodeficiency virus


  • Tuberculosis

Using protective equipments and following simple procedures can control the risk of exposure from this infectious diseases. It is advisable that as a first aid provider the following protective equipments should be worn or utilized to keep the body isolated:

  • gloves (at least several pairs)
  • protective eye-wear
  • standard mask or face mask
  • Mouth to barrier devices
    • face shield
    • pocket mask

First aiders ordinarily will not have or need all equipments during an emergency. It would always depend on the case and situation. However, it is best to have them available just in case.

First Aid Supplies

There are certain things that we can prepare before hand which we could utilize the moment there is and emergency. It would be worthwhile to have them in advance. Likewise in the company setting certain items can be stored so as to have the necessary supplies the moment it is needed. Whether in the home or in the workplace, first aid supplies should be customized to make it appropriate for the specific setting. First aid supplies from the home-place may include personal medications while the workplace may contain more of some items base on the needs like if the company is a manufacturer of furniture, it is expected to have problems like cuts and bleeding, then several bandages, antiseptic, and other items for this concerns should be added more to the supply.



Now we are almost ready. But before we go into action, bear in mind that once you started your care, you must not leave the victim until another trained person takes over or the ambulance arrive. Leaving a person without someone taking over may be considered abandonment in some countries.

My ambulance duty training, Netherlands
My ambulance duty training, Netherlands

First Aid and the ABC's

Now that we have fully understand what first aid is all about, its time to know the ABC's. Once you approach the victim, tap the victim to check the level of consciousness by saying " Are you okay?. If the victim does not respond, shake the shoulders. If there is no response, immediately identify and correct immediate threats to life. Life threatening problems are those problems affecting the Airway, Breathing and Circulation.

Open the Airway- do this by tilting the victim's head using the head tilt chin lift method. Put one hand on the victims head and put two fingers on the patients chin. Once in position, slowly tilt the head. If you suspect cervical spine injury then do the jaw thrust maneuver. A thorough discussion on the jaw thrust maneuver will be detailed in the later part.

Check the Breathing- place your ear near the patients mouth and chest and observe for rise and fall of the chest. If the breathing is absent, give your rescue breaths.

Circulation - Check for bleeding. Under the healthcare provider setting, you check the pulse while checking for bleeding. Remember that severe bleeding is a life threatening problem and should be corrected immediately.

Should the victim have no breathing and no pulse, provide CPR. This will be discussed in the later stage. You do not proceed to the physical exam unless you have corrected the problems on the ABC'. Otherwise it is useless and the patient or victim will not survive.

Physical Exam

After checking and correcting the ABC's, you may now proceed with the physical exam. Start from the head and down to the feet. In doing so look for D.O.T.S, deformities, open wounds, tenderness and swelling. Remember that open wounds may have severe bleeding and should be corrected immediately if it was not corrected earlier during your ABC.

Another alternate method of doing the physical exam is by following the letters of the alphabet. Considering that from the very moment we started with our education we have been thought of the letters of the alphabet. This method is most likely easily remembered.

Assessment and Intervention guidelines:

  • A - irway - open the airway and check for any obstruction
  • B - reathing - check the breathing and provide rescue breaths if absent
  • C - irculation - check for pulse or any signs of circulation problem (eg. severe bleeding) CLICK HERE on how to control bleeding.
  • D -elicate Central Nervous System - check the patients head for any deformities or any signs of injuries, if the patient talks, ask for his name, and verify if he is aware of time, and place and what happened. Check also if he can move or not and if not check if he has sensation. (a person who is unaware of time and place may have brain injuries and a person without movement and sensation may have cervical or spinal column injury.)
  • E - xtremities - check the upper and lower extremities for any signs of injuries or bleeding
  • F - ractures - check for fractures. If the victim is conscious, ask for any areas of pain, deformities are typical signs of fractures and pain, tenderness and swelling could also be indicative of fractures. CLICK HERE to view splinting procedure.
  • G - General Appearance - observe for skin color and temperature. A pale cold could indicate shock or just plain fainting. A flushed, warm face could be hypertension or stroke.
  • H - istory- gather history of the victim, was it an accident or an illness. Ask the victim for other medical concerns like allergies, medication, etc. If the victim is unresponsive, information as to what have happened can be acquired from the bystanders or even perhaps by observing the scene. A person unconscious along the road could possibly be a victim of vehicular accident.

Do not move the victim unless....

During your assesment and invtervention, it is necessary that you prevent additional injuries and even perhaps death by not moving the victim. This usually aplies to victims of vehicular accident, falling or any emergencies that you may suspect cervical spine injuries. Moving the victim with neck (cervical injury) may cause death. Unecessary movements may also cause paralysis if the victim has spinal column injury. As a general rule, any person who is unconscious should be suspected of having neck injuries. If someone else is available, insure that the victims head and neck is immobilized. This can be done by applying manual immobilization or with the use of a cervical collar if available. The only reason that the victim should be move outright prior to assessment and intervention is the presence of additional threats such as fire, explosion or other emergencies that poses a threat to both patient and the rescuer.

External clues

Certain items from the patient may also give you an idea as to the patients condition or history. These are useful most especially if the victim is unconscious or unable to speak. Here are some of the items that you give you an idea of the patients condition:

  • Medical Tags - worn on the neck or on the wrist
  • Medications in the form of tablet, capsule, injections,
  • Inhalers - may indicate asthma
  • doctors prescription

Looking at these items, may give the first aider additional information, contact numbers and other related details that might be vital in providing care.

Now that we have some idea about first aid, it is time to start learning first aid. In most cases of accident and illness, the endpoint if not treated early or if not treated properly, would be death. Clinical death occurs from the moment the person stops breathing and the heart stops pumping from 0 to 4 minutes. This is the best time to act and do something to bring the person back to life since brain damage may occur after such period. The most important thing to do in this case is Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation is one of the most important lifesaving technique a first aider must learn. We have to remember that the moment a person stops breathing or the heart stops pumping, the brain cells will start to die in 4 minutes time and eventually brain damage will occur. Once the brain cells die, it cannot be reversed. Doing CPR will prevent the the possibility of death. It is imperative that CPR should be started immediately once the victim goes into pulmonary and cardiac arrest.

the author with one of the student in first aid and cpr training
the author with one of the student in first aid and cpr training

Learning CPR

Learning CPR is not a difficult task at all. The course involves lecture and demonstration and usually takes 6 to 8 hours depending on the instructor. Several institutes or training center offers emergency care courses including CPR. There are even online CPR courses available for those who have limited time to attend. After taking the online course, they can proceed to a training center and do the hands on demo or the skills demonstration to receive the course completion cards. Our training center, Basic Lifesaving Solutions, offers CPR courses. Check you locality for schedules and courses available.


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    • cclitgirl profile image

      Cynthia Calhoun 23 months ago from Western NC

      I just took a CPR/First Aid class (second one in less than two years) and was a certified EMT once (a loooong time ago, haha). But it is really good to get these regular refreshers...I think I'd even forgotten about the "getting consent" part. :P

      So, thanks!

    • manatita44 profile image

      manatita44 4 years ago from london

      You are sharing your knowledge and for this I give you 'beautiful.' Like the Cebu in which you live. Did you attend the recent disaster there?

      Hope that you are well and I extend my warmth and friendship to you and yours. happy New Year!!

    • Rolly A Chabot profile image

      Rolly A Chabot 4 years ago from Alberta Canada

      Hi jpso138... such a great read, refreshing knowing these skills are being passed on. Over the years I have taken many course and stay current should the call arise. So essential as society keeps expanding. First responders an take time to get to the need but often those who appear first are those with this wonderful training...

      Thanks... Rolly

    • profile image

      Jackie 4 years ago

      Sure I didn't do you justice but I tried.

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Hi crissp, thanks for finding this interesting and for sharing to others. Thanks for dropping by.

    • CrisSp profile image

      CrisSp 4 years ago from Sky Is The Limit Adventure

      Such a very useful hub! Definitely passing it along, pinning and voting up!

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Thanks J.S, I have also done training for Boy Scouts since it's part of their program. Glad to see you here!

    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 4 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      This is a great guide on performing first aid. I remember when I was a Boy Scout and we did a lot of training in first aid. Well done! Voted up and sharing.


    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Hi Deborah, you are certainly right. Many lives would have been save if most people know how to provide first aid. Thanks fro dropping by and for the comment.

    • Deborah-Diane profile image

      Deborah-Diane 4 years ago from Orange County, California

      I think it is so important that people know First Aid. If more people knew First Aid, many lives could be saved every year. Thanks for writing this Hub.

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      @ monismas, yes, I do agree that everyone should learn the program. Sad to note that in our country, not everyone is taught on this.

    • Crystal Tatum profile image

      Crystal Tatum 4 years ago from Georgia

      I was certified in CPR once - I recall practicing on a teddy bear! Don't think he gave consent though! Well done on this hub.

    • Monis Mas profile image

      Aga 4 years ago

      Everybody should go through a training like this. Great hub!

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      @ agusfanani, true indeed that first aid knowledge would be come in handy as accidents may happen anytime.

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Hi Indian chef, thanks for dropping giving out your comment.

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Hi Peggy, thanks for the visit. It is such an honor if you do share this and tweet. I hope that many will learn from this and see the importance of learning first aid. Best to you!

    • agusfanani profile image

      agusfanani 4 years ago from Indonesia

      Everybody should learn about First Aid because we never know when we have to save others using the right methods.

    • Indian Chef profile image

      Indian Chef 4 years ago from New Delhi India

      Very informative tips. I would keep them in mind.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 4 years ago from Houston, Texas

      Very good article and information that everyone should know. I am going to share this with my followers and also tweet and pin it.

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Hi learner365 thanks for dropping by and for the comment. I appreciate it so much!

    • learner365 profile image

      Saadia A 4 years ago

      Very informative writing. It is interesting to see that you have covered really important things in your Hub. I am sure the information will be very helpful for many.

      Thanks for sharing. My vote up !!!

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Hi vespawoolf, thanks for dropping by and for the appreciation. It is indeed nice to know first aid.

    • vespawoolf profile image

      vespawoolf 4 years ago from Peru, South America

      This is very important information. I'm impressed your coverage of the subject is so thorough. Thank you!

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Hi Jess, thanks for visiting my hub and for the kind words. One my instructor who assisted in our trainings before is now in Canada handling first aid and cpr training. It is great to know that someone out there is very much concerned about first aid and safety. Feel free to use my hubs for the links.

    • JessBraz profile image

      JessBraz 4 years ago from Canada

      This is a very wonderful article! You have a wonderful collection of First Aid related hubs that I will definitely be checking out as well. I've taken CPR & Emergency First Aid a couple of times. I used to volunteer with St. John Ambulance here in Ontario. It's been a few years since my time with SJA and my current CPR needs to be updated as it's expired, but I have the intention of recertifying it this year.

      Great job on your hub! Lots of really great information. And thanks for checking out my hub on winter safety & first aid! It feels pretty good to know someone with your vast First Aid knowledge appreciated my hub. If you don't mind, I think I'd like to provide a link/reference at the end of my first aid hub to your profile/hubs. I only included winter related safety in my hub, I think it would be nice to have someone to send readers to if they need more specific CPR/First Aid advice!

      Great job! Voted up!



    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Hi kidscraft, it is nice to know that you have been educated on this. It is sad to note that not everyone realized the value of such knowledge... It is nice knowing you here..

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 4 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Hi Deborah, thanks for the appreciation.

    • kidscrafts profile image

      kidscrafts 4 years ago from Ottawa, Canada

      Great article and very important information! As Deborah-Diane wrote people should print this and keep this info near their First Aid kit. I took the complete First Aid class when I was a teacher and then again almost three years ago with the city of Ottawa. All the employees of the city of Ottawa have to take the course (it's mandatory). I give art workshops to children and you never know what might happen. I had a refresher course during the Summer this year.

      Voted up, useful, interesting and awesome!

    • Deborah-Diane profile image

      Deborah-Diane 4 years ago from Orange County, California

      Awesome article. People should print this out and keep it with their First Aid kit!

    • fivesenses profile image

      Leena 4 years ago from new delhi

      informative and helpful...shared

    • profile image

      Glysa 7 years ago

      Sir Philip, may i ask if you do conduct disaster management seminar? by the way i was one of your trainees here in Cagayan de oro, Oct 2010. Thank you

    • profile image

      cuddlypoo 7 years ago

      thank you sir!!! looking forward for the training tomorrow :D

    • profile image

      Ron Leaman 7 years ago

      As the owner of a First Aid Supplies business in Australia,it is nice to read about how things are done in other countries. To me CPR and First Aid training are very important skills and this should be more promoted.

    • Cow Flipper profile image

      Sean Jankowski 7 years ago from Southern Oregon

      Fantastic information for all to know. First Aid and quick response is key. Nice to see a hub like this.

    • profile image

      Victor 7 years ago

      Very interesting sir... Thanks for sharing!

    • profile image

      sarah 7 years ago

      i would like to ask if this training is accredited in the united states? can this training center give me a recommendation letter as a proof that i had successfully completed such training??i heard it is only the nc-clex training center who gives this kind of privileges..tnx

    • profile image

      Angela 8 years ago

      Hi sir Jon, I am now in UK... Thanks for all the knowledge you have shared during the training. It's very useful. The card you issued were also recognized... Keep up the good work... You are the best!

    • profile image

      first aid training 8 years ago

      it's really an interesting post.. knowing first aid is very essential. it can save someone's life in danger. i had saved one of my friend's life while we faced a sudden car accident in the highway...

    • profile image

      jade 8 years ago

      where can i find this first aid training center?

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 8 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Thank you for the nice comment mrgonzalesleo. I do appreciate it.

    • mrgonzalesleo profile image

      mrgonzalesleo 8 years ago

      nice hub, very interesting

    • profile image

      Joro 8 years ago

      Hi sir, I am glad that I have found you. I would like to thank you for providing me the training as well as the ECSI cards. They were readily accepted. More power to you!

    • profile image

      Troy 9 years ago

      Good day to all, im just one of the many train under BASIC LIFESAVING SOLUTION TRANING CENTER under the care of JHONATHAN PHILIP S. OBREGON or better known as 138, last October 15 2008. 138 and me had been together for many years, thou im a train fireman paramedic in the philippines cebu,im also a train safety engr for contruction, petrochem,oil&gas, hydrogen sulfide(H2S)safety, SCBA On shore Off shore Drilling Technology, First Aid for man on rig with INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DRILLING CONTRACTORS(IADC)No:R710 HOUSTON TEXAS USA. Honestly, the training i had with Basic LifeSaving solution Traning Center really helps me a lot, belive me, im in riyadh now as Safety engr, dont ask my salary coz its 6figures in peso.More Power & GOD BLESS Sir Tan.

    • profile image

      Geraldine 9 years ago

      Thank you for sharing this information. From the looks of it you do have a vast experience in rescue work and training.

    • Shaydov Grey profile image

      Shaydov Grey 9 years ago from Canada

      I recently got my CPR recertification for work and was surprised by the changes made to the steps of CPR that one is supposed to follow. Thanks for getting info on first aid out there.

    • hub linker profile image

      hub linker 9 years ago

      nice article

    • profile image

      Ronald 9 years ago

      This is such a great article. I am glad that you have posted this. I shall contact you soon on your website. I and my friends are interested to take first aid and cpr training.

    • profile image

      Erlinda 9 years ago

      Very informative sir... You are really the best. I am now in United Kingdom. The completion cards you issued to me were all accepted. I did not regret taking the course from you... I learned a lot!

    • profile image

      Christine 9 years ago

      very interesting sir. I hope you remember me. You were the one who trained me in First aid and CPR. I am now in Canada. Thank you so much for the training. I learned a lot!

    • JPSO138 profile image

      JPSO138 9 years ago from Cebu, Philippines, International

      Actually we do not have a branch in metro manila. But I think there are also accredited instructor in Manila. So all you have to do is search for them. You can perhaps visit Once in the site, simply click educational centers and choose Philippines for search. Best regards!

    • profile image

      ed 9 years ago

      hello, I just want to ask if you have a branch in metro manila. thanks!

    • profile image

      chaowix 9 years ago

      this site rocks!!! i soo love the topics posted :) very simple yet soo important!

      -3 muskeeteer :D

    • profile image

      Mercy Capanas 9 years ago

      I am very much interested to take first aid and cpr training. Are you based in Cebu? I will be coming over to cebu later on. I have visited your training center website. I will contact you from there.

    • profile image

      Jake Peters 9 years ago

      Very interesting!

    • profile image

      Victoria Duff 10 years ago

      This site contains excellent basic information that would help in almost every situation, it would make a great guideline in schools.

    • profile image

      buy absinthe 10 years ago

      great info thank you

    • profile image

      Andrew Estrema 10 years ago

      Very Interesting. Great information

    • profile image

      Kelly 10 years ago

      I have notice that you are from Cebu. I was looking for someone who can train and issue first aid and cpr cards. I will be visiting your training center this week since I also from Cebu. I have our contact number from your traininng center website, I will call you in advance.

    • profile image

      Joseph 10 years ago

      Hello Sir, this is great. I was once of your student in First aid and CPR way back then I was sure you will make it big one day since you are a very good instructor. Keep up the good work and best regards!

    • profile image

      german 10 years ago

      yehey!we're in youtube na..hehehe..tnx 4 teaching us sir JO on how 2 save life specially in emergency situation and also 2 sir Tizon that one of d coolest instructor that I ever meet..Godblss & more power!

    • profile image

      Toto Parreño 10 years ago

      Hi Jonathan,

      Keep up the good work and continue this campaign in imparting life saving knowledge. Its nice to know you are doing well.

    • profile image

      Toto Parreño 10 years ago

      Hi Jonathan,

      Keep up the good work and continue this campaign in imparting life saving knowledge. Its nice to know you are doing well.

    • profile image

      Jay 10 years ago

      This is very nice but more information should be added. I hope you can add more!

    • profile image

      irish managbanag 10 years ago

      hello sir! ako d i c irish ad2ng n attend ug first aid seminar sa santiago..muzta?regards lng q mam trina ug sir jonis..

    • profile image

      Jerome Sy 10 years ago

      Your guides are vey useful. Hope you could add more. I will be checking on this from time to time to learn more

    • profile image

      gerry 10 years ago


    • profile image

      Frederick 10 years ago

      Very interesting topic. Hope you could complete the articles since its is very informative.

    • profile image

      thierry tan 10 years ago

      niceeeeeeeeee... hehehhee

    • profile image

      jeremiah origenes 10 years ago

      The site is simple but yet concise which makes it more user-friendly. Add more info sir.


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    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)