ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Manufacturing Processes - Sheet Metal Forming Process

Updated on October 15, 2014

Sheet Metal Forming Process

Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design
Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design
Written by an engineer with decades of practical manufacturing experience, this book is a complete modern guide to sheet metal forming processes and die design – still the most commonly used methodology for the mass-production manufacture of aircraft, automobiles, and complex high-precision parts.

Sheet Metal Forming

The sheet metal forming process comes under the category of forming as a manufacturing process. There are a number of sheet metal forming methods available which all consist of some form of deformation of the material. The main sheet metal forming methods are:

  • Blanking, where a shaped piece of metal is sheared from a continuous strip.
  • Stretching, where a sheet is gripped at its edges and a form block is pushed in to the sheet to deform it. The material must pass beyond its material yield point to take a permanent deformation but it should be understood that there will always be a certain amount of spring back once the load is removed.
  • Bending, this is where a sheet is bent over a shaped tool usually using a folding machine or press brake. The most common bend form is the 'L' shape and other options are the 'V' and 'U' shape bending tools. Again care needs to be taken to ensure the amount of spring back of the material is taken into account when bending to achieve the required angle of bend and steps should be taken to ensure there is no thinning of material through the bend.
  • Drawing, this is where the sheet metal is formed between a tool and a die. The edge of the material is suitably clamped and a punch is pushed into the material forcing it into the die. Normal practice is to support the underside of a sheet with a pressure pad which helps alleviate any potential tearing problems. The criteria for deep drawing is defined as a depth to diameter ratio of equal to or greater than 1:1
  • Pressing, this process can be considered to be a combination of bending, stretching and drawing. There are 2 side of a mould pushed together with the sheet metal in between to form the required shape. Sometime the bottom mould can be a rubber compound that simply forces the sheet metal around the form of the upper mould, this is useful for small batch production quantities.

Machines and dies can be quite costly but the quality of the product depends on the die design and lubrication used. A better finished die produces a higher quality component.

The main problems associated with sheet metal forming are the aforementioned springback issues, which can be resolved through calculation or, for small batch with general tooling, trial and correction.

Sheet metal forming processes are often accompanied with heat treatment stages, this is particularly true of aluminium alloys which are often annealed then solution treated for final forming and precipitation hardened after final processing. Placing an aluminium alloy component in a freezer at around -19C will delay the period of hardening after solution treatment to keep the material in a soft state for longer.

Sheet Metal Shearing and Bending

Machinery HandBook 28th Edition

Machinery's Handbook, 28th Edition
Machinery's Handbook, 28th Edition
Machinery s Handbook provides mechanical and manufacturing engineers, designers, draftsmen, toolmakers, and machinists with a broad range material, from the very basic to the more advanced. It has always, and continues to provide industry fundamentals and standards while it moves into the 21st century with material reflecting technological advances and offering vast editorial improvements, making the 28th Edition the best tool...ever! This is the one stop reference book for all mechanical engineering disciplines.

This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)