Just a very quick bit of information here to fill in a little gap from elsewhere.
The Latin phrase "Cogito ergo sum" was Descartes' famous expression that is translated into English as "I think, therefore I am." That is a good, literal translation.
Cogito = I think. The Latin word survives in English in the word "cogitate" and related words.
Ergo = therefore. Sometimes used in English on its own.
Sum = I am. In Latin, unlike English, it is more common to omit the pronoun for "I" ("ego" in Latin), but it is sometimes added, possibly to strengthen the phrase or for emphasis: "Ego sum" also means "I am."
Latin "ego" by itself means "I." That is the word that was adopted by philosophy, scholasticism, psychoanalysis, and everyday language to refer to the "self" of a person with different meanings and with varying degrees of emphasis, precision, and/or valuation.
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