In the US, legally, no--the consequences are not equal. The person stealing for greed tends to already have money for their defense and ends up with a comparatively lighter sentence while the poor person faces a comparatively higher one. Even if the person who stole to feed their family doesn't serve prison time, the time spent in court can cause them to lose whatever job they already have, thus driving the family further into poverty.
A simple "slap on the wrist" can still mean 5 to 10 court appearances if it happens in the wrong court district, if not time spent in jail waiting to be formally charged, which can take months!
And after these two individuals have been freed from their crime (dismissed, time served, etc), the rich person can often go back into his society without a problem, while the poor person is often labeled a thief whenever it comes up during a job interview, even 20 years later.