Believe it or not the differences are not much. Obviously the intellectual capacity is one difference, however the scriptures teach this regarding animals and humans. In Ecclesiastes 3:19-20 it states:
"For there is an outcome for humans and an outcome for animals; they all have the same outcome. As the one dies, so the other dies; and they all have one but spirit. So man has no superiority, for everything is futile. All are going to the same place. They all come from the dust and they all are returning to the dust."
What does this mean? This should remind us of the words God spoke to the first human in Genesis 3:19 - "Dust you are and to dust you will return." In other words humans like animals are physical creatures. We are not immortal spirits living in a fleshly body, our thinking faculties cannot survive the destruction of our body. So when it comes to that there is no difference between the soul of man and animal.
Now one big difference between animal and man is that man has a spiritual need. What does that mean? Visit www.jw.org to learn more.
It depends on what you mean by "soul."
The Bible treats spirit and soul differently. In every place I could find, soul was used to indicate personal attachments, aspirations and vulnerabilities. This sounds like ego -- the root of all evil. Ego is an action-reaction, physical, pseudo-self.
If this is what you mean, then there is likely very little difference, except the capacity for intelligent selfishness.
Spirit, on the other hand, is invulnerable and immortal. In most Homo sapiens, spirit is sound asleep. Thus the rescue mission. In fact, it seems from the narrative in the Bible that Homo sapiens was specifically created for this rescue mission to give the sleeping immortal spirit a temporary continuity of consciousness with which to plan out their escape from the darkness of spiritual blindness.
And, if the timeline discovered in Genesis is correct, Homo sapiens was the exception to the rule of evolution, because these body types have been around for 10.5 million years.
In fact, the mission was almost ruined by the corruption of flesh stopped by Noah's Flood, 27,970 BC. That's right when the animal went extinct and Homo sapiens was protected.
Since this is a question about scripture it needs to be answered with scripture.
I do not know of ANY scripture that shows animals have a soul such as humans. They live , they die. There is not one scripture that mentions an afterlife for anything other than man. Only MAN was created in the image of God.
There is NO scripture comparison of a beast or any other animal) to a human. They are different species with totally different lives.
Gen 1:24-28 Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind: cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth, each according to its kind"; and it was so. 25 And God made the beast of the earth according to its kind, cattle according to its kind, and everything that creeps on the earth according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 26 Then God said, "Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." 27 So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28 Then God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth."
Genesis 1: 30 - And to every beast of the earth, .. wherein there is life (soul),
Genesis 1: 20...moving creature that hath life (soul), Original word is nephesh..same word with Gen. 2:7 ..and man became a living soul.
OT:5315 nephesh (neh'-fesh); from OT:5314; properly, a breathing creature, i.e. animal of (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental):
word used in 1: 30 simply means life , living
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