I've been a level VIII commenter for well over a year. Today, I noticed I've been reduced to level VII, yet I comment on several hubs every single day. Has anyone else experienced this? Does anyone know why my level may have been reduced?
Not sure bravewarrior. I am an VIII, but I probably comment on about 20 hubs a day. Not sure what the answer is or how many you need to comment on to keep it up. I didn't know it could go down.
Jodah, I didn't know it could go down either. Unless of course, you stop commenting all together. I don't understand it. I'm hoping someone from admin sees this forum and provides some light.
I wasn't able to get online for about 3 1/2 days and I was busted back to a Level 1 from a Level 3. Not much of a fall, but it did take a while to get to Level 3. I'm at Level 4 now, and woefully I'll be offline again while we make our final move to the East Coast. I'll probably get busted down again.
Rachael, as you know I'm good at supporting my fellow hubbers by leaving comments. Sometimes they are very lengthy and sometimes I just don't need to use 500 words when leaving a comment. Given the fact that I only post once or twice a month and I spend an hour a day commenting, whose hubs am I commenting on?! Let's not talk about the days that go by that my account has stalled over the last several months. Might that have something to do with not catching all the comments made? I'm very frustrated and hurt. Maybe it shouldn't mean that much to me but it does. Apparently, loyalty doesn't mean anything.
I sympathize with you, esp since I may be in the same fix in about a month's time. Hopefully a moderator will come into this question and answer you.
This is a piece of information. I understand we should stay close to HP every now and then just like a real part time worker. It is nice to hear that.
20 comments a day? Holy cow! Good for you.
Have you been changing your commenting in any way Shauna? It depends on the combination of length and quality of the comments that you leave on both your Hubs and others Hubs.
Examiner, I haven't changed anything. Yesterday I left quite a lengthy comment on a hub and it never showed up. I comment on everything this particular hubber posts. I just don't get it. I spend about an hour or two each day commenting on my and others' hubs. It's quite distressing that my level has gone down.
This Learning Center article explains the nature of accolades and points out that inactivity and a changes in activity can make accolade levels fluctuate or some to disappear.
Notice that for the commenting accolade it reflects you activity for the last 6 months and emphasizes comments on others' hubs. So maybe if you were replying more to comments on your own hubs, your ratio got skewed and your level dropped.
Commenter level doesn't affect whether your comments are read and replied to. A Level 1 commenter is on equal footing with a Level 8; the hub author can delete, ignore, report, or reply to any comment regardless of the commenter's level.
None of the accolades, hubscores, or hubberscores have any bearing on earnings or traffic, so I don't think you should get too distressed over them. Lots of people don't even display their accolades.
That's just it - my commenting activity hasn't changed. Actually, it's increased because I've recently started following hubbers whose articles I find interesting and well-written. That's in addition to the folks I had already been supporting. I really don't get it. I understand how the hub score fluctuates, but I've done nothing to warrant a demotion in my commenting status. I wouldn't have asked the question if I had!
You haven't been demoted in any real sense. The commenter level means nothing in practical terms. Everything you can do as a Level 1,000,000 commenter you can also do as a Level 1.
I have often wonder how that happens too. I have no idea and didn't know they graded us on the length of our comments.
Some accolades are permanent and others can changed based on your activity.
Commenter Levels fall into the latter.
Matthew, I commend you for showing up. I've read the FAQs, thanks to calculus-geometry pointing them out. However, I'd like to see proof of my activity having diminished in quality or frequency. Can you show me that? My personal business suffers because I put priority on reading and commenting on hubs. That might be counterproductive on my part, but I certainly didn't expect to be penalized for it (other than compromising my income potential). My hubbers come first and my loyalty/participation proves it. Please take a look at the stats and give me numbers to validate your assessment.
I wouldn't look at it as a penalty at all.
It is a nice thing to have, but a commenter level accolade has no impact on your account. If you are concerned with it dropping, then you can comment more often, but I wouldn't spend much time worrying about it.
Matthew, the problem I have with my level being lowered is I comment every day on many, many hubs. That's why I'm upset. To me, the commenter level lets newbies know that a particular hubber is active and supportive. It's HP's community I support. I will ask you again to please check whatever measures have been put in place. I can deal with my hub score going down; I know that my infrequent posting affects my score. However, having a level VIII for most of my tenure - and doing nothing to affect it - hurts me to have been lowered a level. If I had a dollar for every comment I leave on HP, I would have no need to seek clients in my freelance endeavors. Please, I'm asking you. Give me stats to back up HP's decision. I deserve that, do I not?
The general information related to how these accolades are assigned is available in the learning center link:
We are unable to provide any more detailed information such as "You commented on 4 Hubs before and did 3 now" for example.
Part of the reasoning behind not releasing the full details is that the system could then be gamed.
I'm not sure why you mention "income potential" and "reading and commenting" in the same paragraph. It is lovely to see that you've developed such a great bond with other writers on HP, and I'm sure it is helping motivate and inspire you and others - but I hope you don't think your efforts are helping their income or yours.
A handful of Hubbers reading or commenting on Hubs is a drop in the ocean compared to the thousands of visitors a Hub needs to make money. The statistic most commonly quoted is that to be successful, over 90% of our traffic needs to come from outside HubPages.
This is another aspect of the misleading nature of accolades and scores. People who focus on them are likely to harm their income potential, not enhance it, because it makes them spend far too much time inside the community instead of outside, where our paying audience is.
I was not referring to the income potential HP provides. I was referring to my own that suffers because of the time I spend on HP. That's my fault and something I need to address.
As far as outsiders, very few actually comment, although I've had several comment on my product review hubs. As such, I respond. According to the HP facts, we should spend more time commenting on other people's hubs than our own. Excuse me, but when someone - especially an outsider - takes the time to comment, I take the time to respond. Forgive me for posting hubs that compel readers to comment. Is that not the point?????>
Ah, I see, I misunderstood the reference.
I know very few outsiders comment. That's just the nature of the internet - I don't get many comments on my blog either, unless I write something controversial. I'm not sure how that's relevant.
I was simply making the point that the social and motivational side of HubPages - Hubbers supporting each other - is completely separate from the business side of HubPages, because it doesn't contribute to the money-making endeavour. I just wanted to be sure you were aware of that, as it seems you are spending a huge amount of time on it.
If the accolades/scores are intended to reward the social side, it's obvious they don't work, because (as you've discovered) they often cause more distress than satisfaction owing to their arbitrary nature.
Marisa, I've been a member for over two years and have been very active in one way or another. As I said, I don't post as often as I used to (which affects my HP passive income), but before I go about my day I spend the first hour or so checking to see who has posted (I depend on notifications from HP to alert me) and I read and leave comments. I will admit I won't comment if I don't have something positive to say, but they are few and far between.
I know many people who use HubPages that way, as more of an author support group than as a source of income - and that's a great way to use it. That's your choice and I'm glad you enjoy it so much.
I'm similar in that I don't write for income these days, but I do enjoy the forums on HubPages and spend far too much time here trying to help out newbies. However I rarely read other Hubs, because I know my views contribute so little to other Hubbers' income - I'd rather spend my time where it can do more good.
And I'm just the opposite. I only read the forums when someone I follow posts a question. I'm much more interested in reading the creative pieces my fellow writers come up with. It's how we grow. The community helps us develop our skills and ready ourselves for publishing. Most of the hubbers I follow are serious about writing. I'm working on a novel and post each chapter as I write them because I want feedback from my peers. That's why I'm here. If I felt I could help newbies, I'd be a writing coach and wouldn't use HP as my platform. I'm here for the community and the absolutely awesome friends I've made. It is those I support daily, via comments.
Hopefully,now you and HP gets my point.
Funny, my hub score has gone up since I posted this forum. I'm not concerned with that so much. My commenter level, however, lets newbies know I'm a loyal fan. That's what irritates the hell out of me; my loyalty has been diminished to algorithms and not human vision. That's why I hate technology. Human interest means nothing.
I agree with everything you say Bravewarrior. My main focus here is to write what pleases me and I think other like minded writers will enjoy reading. If the outside world likes it too, if not so be it. Also to read other writers fabulous and creative works and to get further inspiration from that. Money makes no difference to me. It will be a sad day if that is the only focus for people writing here. I rarely visit forums either unless someone I follow has asked a question, or the topic is especially relevant. I find you get more arguments here than help.
Yep, seems that way, Jodah. I'm after principle here. I've been a loyal commenter for a long time. It's nice I get notifications when I'm receiving an accolade, but how 'bout showing the same courtesy when something is being taken away. Like I said, once you earn something it's yours. Like honors in high school and college. Like Emmys, Grammys, etc. You don't take something away once it's been earned. That's just wrong,
So true, Sha and Jodah, I am here for the support and feedback of my fellow Hubbers who I love to read and I am thrilled when they leave a comment on something I write. I am here for the community, and to learn from other wonderful writers such as yourselves. You are awesome and never forget it! Your comments are always top notch as is your writing, and much appreciated! I have no clue as to the outside world reading my stuff. If they do, great, and if they do not, so be it. Hugs
Bravewarrior, I felt the same way after being demoted from Level 7 to 6 recently. It hurts - and yet I continue to respond to each and every one who comments on my hubs - usually, I go and read one of theirs and comment in return.
It seems that this relates to reduced traffic which for me is 50% lower than a year ago. I get fewer comments and provide less interaction in return. Penalize me with a lower commenter score? That will inspire me (not).
Mck is right. Scores do not define us.
Peg, I agree scores don't define us, but then why are we given accolades in the first place? Once something has been earned, it belongs to that person. Period.
I think the answer is to remove the Commenter score from the Accolades section. "Accolades" suggests an award for a level achieved. If you look at the other awards, that's pretty much the case.
However it's clear from Matt's comments that the Commenter score was NOT designed as an award for a level achieved - it's simply a reflection of your commenting activity at that point in time. In that sense, it works in the same way as HubberScore - which isn't included in the Accolades section.
The accolades, hubscores, and hubberscores were designed because HP thought this would motivate people to stay on the site longer and do various activities that increase scores and accolades -- writing hubs, commenting, participating on forums, using the Q&A section.
What HP didn't realize, is that most people are motivated to stay on the site because they like writing, earning, and chatting with other hubbers. Most people will write hubs, comment, use the forums, and post to Q&A without any scores or accolades as a carrot. Yet, the scores and accolades are still part of the site because management thinks they are useful, or maybe managment just thinks they are cute. Few hubbers beyond the management put any stock in scores or accolades.
Hi Dear Sha, my Internet has been down and will not be fixed until next week sometime when they can come out, but I am on free WiFi at the moment. I would hope they would allow those who spend so much time commenting to be off of here for unexpected reasons and not to demote them for such. I never really knew that the commenter level could drop until another HP friend told me about it happening to that friend. I have been a level VIII for quite some time and would be discouraged if it were to ever drop, especially being the amount of time spent on here. From my understanding, it may not be the amount of comments, but the length of interactive commenting? In other words, just commenting "Great Hub" will not do it, but I know you never do such in your commenting as it always engages the reader, as to encourage one to come back and comment again in response to a question you may have left in a comment. I am not sure, but that is my very little knowledge on the topic. Blessings and love.
Faith, I don't know how they measure the commenter level. They must have changed something. I've been leaving detailed comments for as long as I can remember. The only time I don't comment is when I don't have something nice to say or I didn't finish reading the hub for various reasons. If I'm (we're) expected to comment on everyone we follow they're crazy. Not all hubs are worth commenting on.
Yes, they surely must have! Exactly, you leave detailed and engaging comments. I think once we earn that level, it should never drop. Hopefully, one is not expected to comment on all! I am one to think, too, that as relates to hubs, if the hub reaches its highest score, it should remain, as how can it all of a sudden not be that hub in the high 90s just because of lower views at a later date in time. The hub is still high quality, so why would they drop the score ... but that is a whole other issue. I hope you are enjoying a lovely Sunday. Blessings and love.
My hub scores change all the time. Just when I think I have one hub ranking in the mid-90's, I guess lack of popularity or traffic must make HP de-rank it so it is graded down to the mid to high-80's.
I feel bad for you bravewarrior that you are fretting much over this, while I do agree it is wrong.
I have not been here that long, but early on, I saw that these scores were a way to rank us (pit us) against one another to be more active or do better, by showing us who has more accolades or -- a better hub score, which incidentally is the only score others can see, and I don't like the system because it does promote rancor.
I did enjoy the commenter level, but if it is going to be given and taken away because of inactivity or whatever, then take the damn thing away and it will be one less thing we have to worry about in our ranking on HP.
I don't know if our commenter level has anything to do with our profile score or not, but this scoring system smacks so much of Catholic school, it aint even funny.
I haven't commented much today because I'm working over at IMDb updating death and such, but I get the HP notifications and see what is happening with each comment here.
Bravewarrior is getting more upset because HP is not giving a satisfactory answer (at least I don't see one that is satisfactory) and others are trying to keep the peace by saying let it go. It's hard for bravewarrior to let it go when it was something that identified her and some of us put more stock in the accolades than others, I get that.
But it looks like nothing is going to come of this, so I think it is time to let it go. We can go back to still being the supportive friends we are to each other with commenting on our hubs and forums, and the scores can go blow smoke somewhere else.
I'm sorry bravewarrior. I had started out hoping to be more positive but I'm just defeated when it comes to a hierarchy that ranks their participants with scores/points or ribbons, passing them off as a reward system when it is really a one sided grading system where we have no clear rules or marking system and no idea how to compete with or in it.
I don't come here to compete at HP, I want to write. I want to read what my friends write and not worry about HP grading system that rewards or gives demarits (sp?). After all, HP needs us writers because without us, there is nothing left here. All they have left is a website loused up with tons of 4AM spammers who get away with murder in posting frenzies of pure garbage.
Take care my friend, this too shall pass.
Yeah, I'm burned out on the subject. I agree with you: just take the commenter level accolade away entirely. I've been commenting like crazy since the drop and it still hasn't gone up. I'd like to know what the grading criteria is.
You got me to check mine and it just went down by 1. They must have just gone through them and lowered everyone's. The commentator level isn't that important, so I wouldn't fret about it.
I not only hope a BODY from HP reads this but actually has the thoughtfulness to provide an explanation.
I have been beyond disgusted at the ROBOTIC and AUTOMATIC manner in which the 'high paying' supporters of this group are treated. We get pennies for heavens sake and then we are dropped in STATUS like children in detention.
It is a wonder I comment at all since being reduced to a 5 or a 6...I honestly no longer look or care...this system is such a sham. I love and support my faithful friends to the best of my ability and you are one of them.
Other than that, HP has become rather silly..."can you hear me"...now go ahead and give me some "circles" or some other kind of punishment...that will show me, oh powers that be...come out from behind your Oz curtain.
Sha, you are too lovely and talented. Do not fret over something like this, please. Love, Maria
Maria, perhaps I fret over inconsequential things. I just don't like being hit from behind. I was a level VIII until today. I try so hard to be supportive of my faithful followers and those whose work I love and respect. What's weird is I had 3 open circled hubs out of the 126 I've posted. Now I only have one. Which is good, but I want my commenter status back! I earned it and I continue to earn it. So, WTF?
Perhaps Google had something to do with it. They seem to have quite a bit of control we do not know about.
What does Google have to do with HP's commenting formula? I see my comments on blogs all over Google when I Google Shauna L Bowling. In fact, I show up on the first 3 pages, some of which are comments left on blogs.
Various Hubbers have commented or complained about other problems which they thought was due to HP. It turned out that it was because Google updated their site or banned things or came out with Panda, as a few examples.
I was a 7, and now since I missed over 2 months of being online I and probably down again.
I know it is silly for me to even give it a second thought, but I do.
And, I cannot share with you why---because I do not know. However, I do not understand it happening to such great writers are you.
Bobbi, it bothers me, too. It really does. Just the fact that I'm responding to comments on this forum is proof that I'm not lax in supporting my fellow hubbers. And, by the way - what's wrong with commenting on my own hubs? Aren't we encouraged to respond to comments? What am I supposed to do? Ignore mine and only comment on other hubs? What kind of sense does that make?
I just checked and now I am level 5. I will worry about this tomorrow. Have a great day.
Hello bravewarrior. You are not owned by HP. They can grade you but their grade means nothing. A few weeks ago I saw an HP survey question that asked how likely I was to recommend HP to someone. 1-10. I graded the question as a 2. Nonsense is nonsense. You are better than their bureaucracy grading: it means less than nothing.
What a discouraging thread to read. As a newcomer here I have been very pleased by the community, but very discouraged by the staff. It does seem like the don't care about those of us creating the content for their site, as long as their pockets don't feel it.
I personally think that once a badge is awarded, it shouldn't be taken away from the person unless they do something extreme. I am so sorry this happened to you and do feel like it is completely unfair.
I know many say "just don't worry about the numbers or scores" but it is harder for some than others to look past these things. I am definitely someone who looks way into my scores and such.
I wish the staff at HubPages cared a bit more, because I have never found a community that cares more about a site than I have found here.
Kathleen, I agree with you. The community here is what keeps us active. The people I've met are phenominal. We ARE HubPages! Let's give credit where credit is due. HP seems to be more concerned with accrediting newcomers than rewarding those who stick it out through all the changes (that happen with no heads up to the working staff - us!)
Welcome, by the way. You'll find the only people who welcome you to the site are fellow writers - not the moderators.
I award you with a kindness award! It may not show up on your profile, but it is worth MUCH more than any points HP gives you. Hope you stick around despite this! And thank you for the welcome
Kathleen, I thank you from the bottom of my heart. Today's world is not kind to the souls that are we humans. We are not algorithms. We are people and we bare our souls to those who touch us. You've touched mine. I'm now going to view your profile and see what you're about. So far, I like what I see.
Oh boy, I am also down to 7. But I honestly don't care. My status in HP does not depend on a grade given to me by a computer, or even by a person who never ever interacts with me, but on the fellow-writers/readers I have met and friends I have made since my arrival. The status of fellow-hubbers also depends on me and me alone - on the pleasure I get from reading their hubs and from enjoying their support and friendship. Whatever's the intentions and doings of the capitalists in charge - really don't bother me at all.
Don't allow them to manipulate you with their grading-tactics, Bravewarrior. Your supporters/followers really don't care about your status in HP, but only about you and what they can learn from you.
BTW, getting angry about our grading, is an ego thing. But this very ego of mine will also not allow me to become a slave of any powers in charge. Let them manipulate those who are willing to be slaves instead of writers with a free will and spirit.
I have my own agenda and my own goals to achieve, and yes, grateful for the opportunity offered by HP. Yet, I refuse to be a puppet on their string.
If they ask me to go, I will go..... There ARE many other sites for writers to explore - sites graded higher by Google!
Take care, Shauna!
Martie, you've given me a new "perspective" on this issue. You're absolutely right - my ego has gotten in the way. Even still, it hurts to be degraded when the numbers don't warrant it. Have I bashed HP for stalling my stats for days on end? Repeatedly? No! I stood by them. I'm sorry, but I expect the same in return. Whatever their new criteria is, it's wrong and extremely inaccurate. Perhaps they should hire bean counters that know how to count without using a calculator or relying on software. I used to be in the accounting field, as you know. I can still count beans with pen and paper!
I think it's a pretty pointless "accolade." I'm a level VII; I was a level VIII for all of a whole day; and got bumped right back down within 24 hours.
This doesn't have any effect whatsoever on your hub scores, or earnings, so no worries.
I ignore it.
As a lowly Level IV, I am not worthy to breathe the same air as you
Oh, give me a break, calculus. I sincerely hope you're being sarcastic! I do not judge, nor do I think I'm better than anyone else. It's just that I would be heartbroken if I found out that the honors I graduated with in high school had been removed without notification. To me, once you earn something, it's yours to keep.
Just because you're over-reacting doesn't mean others can't joke around about something trivial. A staff member addressed your "distressing" concern so now you can berate him. Have a splendid day!
Oh, pffffftttt, calculus-geometry! LOL No one is 'lowly.' I really do think this particular "accolade" is meaningless grandstanding. That's why I ignore it--unless the topic comes up, as it did here--in fact, I had to go check where mine currently sits, because I did not know. After that one-day at level VIII, is when I quit paying attention. That was sometime ago--like ... ... I don't know. but at least a year, I'd say.
My level VIII was the only consistent stat, DzMsLizzy. I held it for well over a year.
I am also new here and did not know what the level commenters were. However, I can tell you that I really appreciate all the help I have received here. I hope to be able to help others after I have been here longer and know the ropes.
I totally understand how you feel. Even if a rating system is meaningless, it is human nature (for some of us) to want to achieve the highest possible score. Some of us are over-achievers and pleasers. This accolade is probably run by some algorithm. Like some people here have said, it might be better to work on your own hubs and hitting other milestones than commenting as much anyway.
Thanks to you and everyone who comments on hubs.
Lisa, I appreciate your comment. I've not posted as frequently on HP as I used to because I now have a blog to maintain and have paying gigs to work and/or seek. However, I'm still an active participant daily, without fail. It just seems tit isn't always for tat. It used to be, but apparently not anymore.
Yes it is run by an algorithm, and it is indeed meaningless. Not one of the accolades or scores has any meaning, because none of them will help you achieve financial success on HubPages. They are all designed to reward 'social' Hubbers - those who are here to enjoy the community and don't want to get into the travails of writing for profit - which is their right.
It's a nice idea but in practice, no algorithm is perfect and strange things happen - so these accolades/scores seem to upset more people than they reward. I have often wondered why HubPages persists with them, but I do know that the owner, Paul Edmonson, thinks they are wonderful so they're not disappearing any time soon.
Oh, Sha, this is so unfair. I wish I had an answer for why this happened. I, too was 'bumped' from an VIII down to a VII. No idea why.
Just thinking aloud here, but I wonder if someone deleting a hub or having a hub unfeatured could affect someone else's commentator level?
Suppose that your commentator level takes into account the number of your comments currently published. If some of those comments got deleted or unfeatured (due to someone else's hub rather than your individual comment being moderated) then your level would fall, even though you had not changed the frequency of your commenting.
I'm sure that's a factor, although I find hubs have been deleted before I get the chance to comment. I honestly don't know what has changed. Certainly not my commenting frequency. I comment daily and often.
I'm sure that's a factor, although I find hubs have been deleted before I get the chance to comment. I honestly don't know what has changed. Certainly not my commenting frequency. I comment daily and often.
webseo22- have you been commenting regularly? leaving valuable feedback for others? commenter scores are not permanent, and can change if you dont stay active
Scores tabulate automatically as far as I know. My commentor level dropped at one time. I wish the hub, hubber and accolade scores would go away, and we could concentrate on writing. We would still go on with being active on site. I love to comment on hubs but do not like all the scoring. It puts pressure on some writers Let us try to believe in ourselves and our fellow writers and try to take scoring out of our minds It is difficult for me, but I tell myself we can't fight automatic scoring.
I agree, brakel2. We'd be better off not being distracted by the proverbial dangling carrot.
I agree, too, Audrey, as it would actually produce more writing I believe and more creativity and they can still have their quality assessment but without the hubber score and such.
Shauna - it's a strange, strange world in Hubland! Funny, I never even look at my commenter level - but I will now, just to get a benchmark! I guess that shows it is inconsequential to me. My toes are very sensitive, but I guarantee if you were to pull my toenails out right now I still couldn't tell you my commenter level, or yours! What really matters is your beautiful writing, and the lovely friendships we all form. It really isn't worth sweating the small stuff, at least that's what I thought, until I saw this HUGE thread! Wow!
I'll give you my personal commenter award of 10. ( Does it go up that high?).
I really don't mean to trivialise your concern, but I do think the less we worry about this stuff the better. It probably isn't even worked out by humans anyway, so you're the only one with feelings. Sort of like throwing your laptop against the wall when it misbehaves -it doesn't feel the pain!
Loveya my friend.
by Bruce Chamoff5 years ago
This is strange. I was a level 3 commenter and have been commenting a lot in the last week, hopefully considered quality comments, but I went down to a level 2 commenter today. Does anyone know if Hubpages changed their...
by Jason Menayan6 years ago
Hi everyone,In Hubs' Comment Capsules, we've made a few enhancements (coming very soon):- Comments left by the author of the Hub are reflected as "Hub Author" in a bubble next to the username.- Commenter level...
by Danette Watt6 years ago
Ok, so I participate in the forums, ask and answer questions, read hubs and leave comments that are more than "great hub." (And I've been doing these all along). Granted I haven't written a new hub in a while...
by Shauna L Bowling2 years ago
I love the new look of the hubs. The share buttons are in the right place (as evidenced by other popular blogs/site). My Hub Score has even gone up, although my Hubber Score continues to oscillate.What I don't...
by Hui (蕙)3 years ago
I used to be a level 4 commenter. Suddenly, became a level 1. Interesting!
by Twila Nelson4 years ago
My feelings have been hurt. I love HubPages and have spent time commenting, creating, writing, casually reading and using HubPages as a resource for research each and every day. And during a time when I have...
Copyright © 2018 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.