It is the narrowing of the Oesophagus or Oesophageal lumen which makes it difficult for swallowing. This can be due to thermal and radial burns, or as a result of Esophagitis or peptic Ulcers
Oesophageal Diverticulum is the outpouching of the Oesophageal wall, filled with mucus and undigested food. Increase in intra-Oesophageal pressure is a major factor in this situation
Oesophagitis is an inflammatory process which affects the Oesophagus due to either infection or irritation. Such infection could be fungal, bacteria, viral or immunosuppressing conditions.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease develops when gastric (Stomach) or duodenal contents flow back into the Oesophagus. It is only considered a pathological condition when it causes undesirable symptoms
Loa loa is prevalent in west and central Africa and this is commonly known as the African eye worm.Onchocerca volvulus prevalent throughout tropical Africa, Mexico, Guatemala and Northern Brazil.
One major cause of Gastritis, especially in its acute form is Chemicals such as NSAIDs drugs and reflux of Bile back to the stomach from Intestine. How can this be treated and even prevented?
Gastritis is the inflammation of the stomach mucosa wall. It could be due to autoimmune processes or Helicobacter infection or even chemicals. What are the implications of the H. pylori Gastritis?
Achalasia means "Failure to relax"; hence Achalasia of the Cardia is the disease characterized by failure of the lower Oesophageal sphincter to relax when swallowing.
These other filarial infections include the Tetrapetalonema spp, Mansonella ozzardi, Dracontiasis infections and other rare helminthic infections.
Trematodes are flat leaf-shaped unsegmented worms which have a long lifespan. Except shcistosomes, all are hermaphrodites. Compared to the other worms, human fluke infection is rare in places like India.
The diagnosis is evident if recurrent febrile episodes associated with lymphangitis occur in an endemic area or if there is history of residence in an endemic area. At this stage, microfilaria shows
The adult worms living in the lymphatic vessels are responsible for the lesions. The severity of the lesions depends on the number of adult worms, their location and the reaction of the host.
Infection by nematodes belonging to the family filarioidae constitute filariasis. Wuchereria bancroffi, Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Dipetalonema perstans, Dipetalonema streptocerca
Schistosomiasis is diagnosed by demonstrating the eggs in appropriate specimens or in tissue biopsy. Investigation for S. hematobium includes plain x-ray of abdomen for bladder clacification
Though schistosomiasis is one of the more widespread helminthic infections affecting about 200 million people in 71 countries, it is only rarely reported from India.
Infection of the biliary passages by Clonorchis sinensis causes clonorchiasis. While Infection by Schistosoma hematobium, S. mansoni or S. japonicum constitutes Schistomiasis.
Care should be taken in handling dogs. Domestic dogs should be regularly de-wormed. Three courses of arecoline 4mg/5Kg body weight eliminate T. echinococcus and Hymenolepis nana in dogs.
Infection of human tissues by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus and less commonly E. multilocularis is termed echinococciasis. The disease is worldwide in distribution.
The adult of Taenia solium inhabits the small intestine of man; occasionally the larval stage of T.solium may remain encysted in several tissues. This condition is called cysticercosis.
Taeniasis saginata is infection caused by Taenia Saginata. This is among the large tape worms in man and is distributed worldwide. Prevalence is highest in areas where beef is a major source of meat.
Enterobiasis is caused by Enterobis vermicularis while Cestodes or tapeworms are segmented flat ribbon-like hermaphrodite worms. Of which both inhabit the small intestines of men or animals
The term “Visceral larva migrans” is used to denote the manifestations produced by larvae of non-human ascarids when they migrate through human tissues. Most often, the ascarids of dogs and cats
Is caused by Trichinella spiralis, a nematode of several animals such as the rate, pig, polar bear, etc. Man gets infected when meat containing infective larvae is ingested without proper cooking.
Strongyloidosis is infection of the small intestine by Strongyloides stercoralis. Adult females are small measuring 2 mm in length. They live in the mucosa of the duodenum and lay eggs.
Trichuris trichura is worldwide in distribution. It is especially prevalent in the tropics. The prevalence rate in India for instance varies from 5% to 25% in different communities.
Hookworm infection is prevalent in hot damp areas throughout the tropics and subtropics. Two species of hookworms- Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus are seen to parasitize the intestine man
Ascariasis is worldwide in distribution and is caused by the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. In Africa, it is the most widely distributed worm.
Helminthes constitute the most widespread parasites affecting man all over the world. In India, the problem of helminthes is a serious one leading to considerable morbidity, mortality and bad economic
Infection by the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis. This parasite undergoes its full lifecycle only in cats and other canine hosts but it affects many mammals, birds and reptiles.
Giardiasis is infection of the small intestine by Giardia intestinalis (G. lamblia). In the tropics and subtropics, this parasite is very widely prevalent, particularly in children
Balantidiasis is an infection by Balantidium Coli which affects the large intestine of man. While Pneumocystis Carinii infection complicates hematological malignancies and immunosuppressant therapy
The term amoebiasis includes all lesions caused by infection by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Amoeba cause ulcerative lesions in the large intestine causing dysentery
Specific treatment consists of amoebicidal drugs. These may act on the parasites found in the lumen of the gut or on the invasive forms seen in the tissues. They are grouped as luminal amoebicides
Invasive amoebae reach the liver through the portal blood stream from the colon which is the primary seat of infection. In the liver, they multiply and cause necrosis of liver cells to produce abscess
This disease is caused by Trypanosoma Cruzi (Schizotrypanum) which is transmitted by certain reduvid bugs to man. It is seen in all countries of central and South America.
Though, the symptoms of T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense infection are broadly similar, the Rhodesian type is usually more severe and runs a more acute course with a higher mortality.
African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma gambiense or T. rhodesiense. These hemoprotozoa are transmitted by the bite of infected tse tese flies (Glossina).
Oriental Sore is a chronic granulomatous lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissue which ulcerates to form an indolent ulcer. It is caused mainly by L. tropica and L. major.
It is a chronic granuloma of the skin caused by Leishmania donovani following recovery from Kala-azar. Maximum number of cases have been described from India and Bangladesh.
Suspected cases should be hospitalized. Nutritional supplements, maintenance of oral hygiene and treatment of secondary infection from the general treatment.
iagnosis is confirmed by serology, biochemical tests and demonstration of the parasite. Complement fixation test using an antigen prepared from Kedrowsky’s acid-fast bacillus is positive in 95% cases
The incubation period is commonly 2 to 6 months, but in exceptional cases it may be longer. The onset may be insidious as in typhoid or abrupt as in malaria. In the enteric type, fever reaches peak
This is a prolonged febrile illness associated with progressive emanciation, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly caused by Leishmania donovani which parasites the reticuloendothelial cells
The drug of choice is quinine sulphate 650 mg, given thrice a day orally for 2 days followed by a single dose of sulfodoxine 1.5g combined with pyrimethamine, 75 mg (3 tabs of Fansidar)
Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance to the common suppressant drugs during the past two decades. In many areas, this has reached alarming proportions so as to render the standard antimalari
The course of all forms of malaria is chronic. Even without treatment, the primary attack subsides, to relapse again. Each relapse may last for several weeks. Relapses are precipitated by travel
This is caused by occlusion of the microcirculation of the brain, cerebral edema caused by sludging of the parasitized erythrocytes and arterial damage. Infected erythrocytes develop projections
Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is an acute febrile illness caused by a group B arbovirus, clinically characterized by sudden onset of fever with rigor, severe body pains, headache, meningism,delirium
The incubation period in this infection ranges from 10 to 15 days which may be prolonged in subjects taking antimalarial prophylaxis irregularly. The disease manifests with fever, headache, vague
The malarial parasites grow in the erythrocytes and at the end of schizogony, rupture them resulting in hemolysis which coincides with the febrile paroxysm.
When the female anopheles mosquitoes take blood from infected persons, gametocytes are ingested. In the mosquito’s stomach, the gametocytes are released from the erythrocyte exflagellates
Several protozoa are found in humans. Some as pathogens, eg, Plasmodia and leishmania, and the others are commensals, eg, Entamoeba Coli. Though protozoa diseases are seen all over the world
It is a chronic localized proliferative lesion caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi which affects the mucous membranes of the nose, larynx, eyes, ears, mouth, genitalis, rectum and skin.
This is a chronic granulomatous inflammation caused by several species of fungi or actinomycetes. The lesion starts in the subcutaneous tissues,later on involves deeper structures, including the bones
Actinomycetes are transitional forms between bacteria and fungi. They form mycelia like fungi. They are susceptible to antibiotics and in this regard, they behave more like akin to bacteria.
This is caused by inhalation of Histoplasma capsulatum. This infection is worldwide in distribution but maximum number of cases have been reported from the west, especially the USA.
Fungal infections are very common but some of them are serious and fatal. Fungi are present in abundance in the soil as saprophytes and they generally invade immunologically compromised hosts.
The incubation period ranges from 5 to 15 days. Three stages are recognizable- prodrome, acute encephalitis and convalescence.
Previously known as Japanese B encephalitis, this disease is now called Japanese encephalitis (JE). It was first identified as a definite entity when it broke out as an epidemic in Japan in 1924.
Since 1930, several viruses other than yellow fever virus are known to produce hemorrhagic manifestations.
This is characterized by ascending paralysis. It may start as monoplegia or paraplegia. Spasms are not prominent. Paralytic form is known to occur more often after vampire bat bites.
It is an acute infectious fever caused by arbovirus transmitted by the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasil. Yellow Fever is caused by a group B arnovirus transmitted to man by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes
Dengue is an acute febrile illness characterized by high fever, severe pain of the bones and joints, lymphadenopathy and a characteristic rash.
Through cleaning of the wound by washing with soap and water repeatedly and then by 40 to 70% alcohol or 0.1% quarternary ammonium compounds (Cetavlon), eliminates the virus present superficially.
Adenovirus infection, Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis and Rabies or otherwise called hydrophobia or lyssa are infectious diseases of huge significance to Man's health.
Coxsackie viruses are picorna viruses which can be grouped into A and B. They were first isolated from the village of Coxsakie in New York by Dalldorf in 1948, hence the name is derived from there
These are RNA viruses ranging in size, produce a spectrum of diseases ranging from mild upper respiratory infection, fever with rash, aseptic meningitis to acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis.
Complete bed rest, analgesics and local heat to sore muscles give symptomatic relief. Since there is no specific treatment, supportive measures are all important.
Polioencephalitis is unusual and is characterized by alteration in the level of consciousness, convulsions, signs of brainstem involvement and varying combinations of spastic or flaccid paralysis.
Poliomyelitis is an acute contagious disease producing a wide clinical spectrum ranging from a non-paralytic illness in which the patient develops symptoms and signs of meningeal involvement
In a general and concise principle, bed rest, diet, drugs and a follow up therapy are the ideal and only ways of managing Viral hepatitis infections. Complications should be taken note of.
About 15% of patients may get relapse after initial clearance of the jaundice. Premature resumption of physical activity favours relapse. With proper management, this also subsides completely.
The disease presents a clinical spectrum ranging from mild and unapparent infection to the most serious fulminant and often fatal acute hepatic failure.
The HBsAg circulates in blood of infected persons and carriers. It is an antigenic but being devoid of nucleic acid, it is non-infectious. The first antibody to develop after infection is anti-HBc.
Several viruses can cause the syndrome of acute viral hepatitis. This is characterized by diffuse inflammation of the liver as the predominant feature.
This common childhood infection is caused by mumps virus which belongs to the group of paramyxoviruses. The infection is worldwide in distribution and spreads through droplets.
Chickenpox is a common viral infection occurring frequently in children. The disease is highly contagious. It is characterized by fever and disseminated vesicular eruptions.
Relapsing fevers are caused by organisms of the genus Borrelia which are actively motile spirochetes 10 to 12 in length and showing 6 to 8 irregular spirals. They are stainable by aniline dyes
Infection by Herpes simplex virus (HSV) also known as Herpes virus hominis (HVH), produces recurrent crops of vesicles over the mucocutaneous regions. Two types are infective to man.
Rubella is an exanthema caused by an RNA virus (50 to 85 nm in size) belonging to the family of togaviruses. The disease is characterized by mild constitutional symptoms and rash.
Herpes zoster is an acute eruptive disorder characterized by painful radiculitis and vesicular eruptions in corresponding dermatomes. It is seen more commonly in subjects above the age of forty years.
Neurological complications may develop more frequently in children. These include transient cerebellar ataxia encephalomyelitis, polyneuritis, ascending paralysis, transverse myelitis and optic neuritis.
Secondary infection by staphylococci occurs during the stage of postulation. This may lead to septicemia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, otitis media and pyelonephritis.
Though smallpox was one of the most dreaded diseases and outbreaks occurred in the tropics, at present, the disease has been eradicated by worldwide efforts undertaken by the WHO from 1967 to 1977
These are common, though in the majority, the disease is self-limiting. Respiratory complications include croup, bronchitis, bronchiolitis and rarely, interstitial giant cell Pneumonia.
Measles or Rubeola (red spots- Arabic) is an acute exanthematous febrile illness caused by a specific virus of the paramyxovirus group affecting children more. It is an RA virus varying in size
Influenza is a common viral disease which presents as an acute febrile illness. It is caused by three groups of myxoviruses, important among them being influenza virus A, B and C which are different
Several viruses cause the clinical picture of coryza. Of these, rhinoviruses are the most important and common. The disease spreads by droplet and the portal of entry is the upper respiratory tract.
Interferons are proteid substances produced by the host cells in the early phase of infection. Other stimuli also may stimulate the production of interferons and hence this response isn't so specific.
Most of the viruses are not visible under light microscope. They vary in size from 300 nm to 20 nm. Each virus contains a nucleic acid molecule with either RNA or DNA as its genome.
Leptospirae cause serious disease in man in different regions. Among the several serotypes, only Leptospirae icterohaemorrhagiae, L. canicola, L. Pomona, L. hebdomadis and L. autumnalis are harmful
The causative organism is Borrelia duttonii which is transmitted by several species of soft ticks (Argasidae). Several antigenic variants of the same species have been identified in different regions
Yaws and pinta are non-veneral diseases caused by spirochetes which resemble Treponema pallidum morphologically and epidemiology. Primary infection is usually acquired in childhood.
This is an acute febrile illness caused by R. typhi (R. mooseri) transmitted from rat to man by the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis.
Epidemic typhus is a severe febrile disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii. Man is the only known host for this parasite. As age advances the disease assumes more serious proportions
Antiviral drugs have been tried. Iodoxuridine dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide has been used for local application, but the results are poor. Other newer drugs like vidarabine given intravenously
Several viruses may be transmitted by sexual contact. Important among them are herpes genitalis, genital warts virus, molluscum contagiosum, virus B hepatitis, cytomegalovirus and Marburg virus.
Granuloma Inguinale, Chancroid and Trichomoniasis are regular syndromes of sexually transmitted diseases from both sexes. They are caused by pathogens surviving in the genital tract of both sexes.
The principal aims of therapy are to make the patient non-infectious within the shortest time and to achiever cure. Benzyl penicillin is very effective in killing, T. Pallidum
Lymphogranuloma venereum is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis strains Li, Lii and Liii, manifesting as inguinal buboes, pseudo-elephantiasis of the genitals
Urethritis, from which gonococci cannot be isolated, is termed as non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). While in men, the condition is well defined, in women it is not.
Gonorrhea should be suspected in all clinical situations where there is purulent urethral diacharge, situations where there is purulent urethral discharge, leucorrhea in women, ophthalmia neonatorum
Gonorrhea is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases all over the world. This is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which is present throughout the world.
Two types of serological tests have been developed; the nonspecific tests using cardiolipin from beef heart and specific tests using live or killed laboratory strains of treponemes or their components
Treponema pallidum can pass from the infected mother to the fetus through the placenta. An infected mother can transmit the disease to her child even in the late stages
The incubation period varies from 1 to 3 weeks in most cases, though it may extend up to 90 days. A small macule develops at the site of inoculation which later becomes a papule and ulcerates.
Tetanus is an easily preventable disease. Clinical tetanus does not confer immunity and therefore the patient should be actively immunized when he recovers.
The patient is nursed in an environment where external stimuli such as drafts of air, cold winds, noises and vibrations are minimal. Nutrition is provided by giving adequate calories
It takes about three days for the disease to manifest fully. If complications are prevented, the condition remains stable for the next 5 to 7 days. Thereafter, the spasms gradually subside
Tetanus is an acute infectious disease characterized by rigidity, intermittent spasms of the voluntary muscles and convulsions, Trismus, which is a prominent feature, gives it the name “lockjaw”.
Many areas in the body such as the mouth, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, tonsilar crypts, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract harbor anaerobes as commensals and they far outnumber aerobe
Pseudomembranous colitis, Bartonellosis and legionella infections are also types of diarrheal diseases. Not so common but also of huge clinical effect to man's health? What are their manifestations?
In the developing regions, especially in Africa, 2 million children die annually from diarrheal disease other than cholera. Disorders in which three or more watery stools are passed daily
Though cholera is a self- limiting disease, it is customary to use antibiotics when a case is diagnosed. Tetracycline and furaxolidone shorten the duration of the illness and stop excretion of vibrios
All cases with moderate or severe diarrhea should be hospitalized and treated properly, early replacement of gastrointestinal fluid and electrolyte losses, maintenance of nutrition & antimicrobial
Severity of cholera varies from a completely asymptomatic form to fulminant diarrhea and shock. In el tor cholera, outbreaks , the proportion of asymptomatic and mild cases are higher than severe ones
Cholera is an acute infectious disease occurring in outbreaks, characterized by watery diarrhea and effortless vomiting, often leading to severe dehydration and shock
Brucellosis is an infectious disease of animals which is transmitted to man handling infective material or by ingestion of infected articles of food. Brucellosis is present all over the world
This disease used to occur in the form of epidemics in the early parts of this century, but now its incidence is very rare. It is a disease which is transmitted to man by the infected rat flea
The genus proteus has four species which are pathogenic to man: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. morganii and P. rettgeri. Proteus mirabilis is the most common species,
Species of Klebsiella are capsulated Gram negative bacilli found normally in the throat and intestinal flora. Klebsiella pneumonia (Freidlander’s bacillus) is a virulent organism
Clinically, the disease should be suspected when dysentery occurs with fever and signs of toxemia. Diagnosis is confirmed by microscopic examination of stools
Bacterial dysentery is caused by infection by organisms belonging to the genus Shigella and clinically characterized by diarrhea, (stools contain mucus and gross blood) fever, vomiting & stomach pain.
These are produced by Salmonella paratyphi A and B respectively. The illness generally resembles typhoid in clinical pattern, though the toxemia and complications are milder.
Staphylococci are the most ubiquitous organisms affecting man. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen.
Streptococci are among the commonest bacterial pathogens of man. They produce several pathological lesions.
Anthrax is a disease of animals which is transmitted to man either directly or through infected animal products and caused by Bacillus anthracis.
General management consists of rest in bed, proper nursing care to avoid bedsores and oral sepsis and maintenance of nutrition and fluid and electrolyte balance.
Typhoid fever has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of all prolonged febrile illnesses seen in tropical countries. These include hepatic amebiasis, tuberculosis, infective endocarditis
Typhoid fever is associated with several complications. The major complications include severe toxemia, peripheral circulatory failure and intestinal hemorrhage and perforation.
The onset is slow with anorexia, malaise, lethargy, fever and headache. The temperature rises in a step-ladder pattern in the first week. The pulse is relatively slow. Headache is prominent from start
Typhoid and paratyphoid are caused by salmonella typhi and salmonella paratyphi respectively.
Hemophilus influenza exists in coccobaciliary form in cultures but shows bacillary morphology in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.
Toxigenicity can be assessed by guinea pig inoculation, passive agar gel diffusion (Elek plate method) or counter immunoelectrophoresis.
Meningococcemia may be fulminant or chronic. The fulminant form is characterized by abrupt onset, severe constitutional disturbances, peripheral vascular collapse, shock and sometimes myocarditis.
Nisseria meningitis (meningococcus) is pathogenic exclusively to man. The clinical syndromes include meningitis, meningococcal septicemia and rarely lesions in the joints, ears, eyes, lungs and heart.
Pneumonia is often preceded by coryzea or other upper respiratory tract infections. Incidence of pneumonia is higher in males. The onset is sudden with fever and chills in the majority of cases.
Pneumococci are found in the upper respiratory tract. On the basis of capsular precipitation reactions using type specific antisera, about 84 serotypes have been identified.
Superficial lesions are typical of staphylococcal infections and this is aids a lot in their diagnosis. Clinical presentations such as furuncle, carbuncle, impetigo, ecthyma, sycosis barbae,
Infective endocarditis may present with fever and heart lesions. Presence of clubbing, hepatosplenomegaly, absence of arthritis and development of embolic complications help to distinguish this
Early institution of antimicrobial therapy is lifesaving. Specimens are collected for bacteriological investigations before antibiotics are given. Bactericidal drugs should be given intravenously.
Clinically, rheumatic fever should be considered in all cases of prolonged fever in any developing country. Rapid pulse, arthritis, skin manifestations and carditis suggest the diagnosis.
Acute rheumatic fever affects multiple organs, depending on its progression and stage. The commonest organs affected are: the heart, joints, body coordination and the skin.
Rheumatic fever is not an uncommon disorder seen in the pediatric age group worldwide. It is clinically characterized by fever, polyarthritis, carditis, chorea, skin manifestations and pleurisy.
The importance of septic shock as a life- threatening emergency in several infections has been recognized in recent times. In most cases, endotoxins of Gram- negative bacilli are responsible.
When the temperature is raised above 38.30C for more than two weeks without the cause being detected by physical examination or laboratory tests, it comes under the definition of PUO.
History should include the details of the place of residence, recent visit to endemic areas, the pattern of onset and course of fever, and the accompanying clinical phenomena.
The onset may be abrupt as in infections like Pneumonia or it may have a step ladder type of rise as in typhoid fever.
Fever is perhaps the most common manifestation of ill health and it is an early and nonspecific hody response to many harmful agents.
After gaining access to the body, the infecting organisms adhere to their site of primary attack by finbriae (pili) or surface antigens. The next step is to multiply and produce a local lesion.
Microbes abound in nature. They are mostly commensals, some are saprophytes, and a few are pathogens. Saprophytes are freeliving microbes which subsist on dead or decaying organic matter.
Iodine, fluorine, copper and zinc are mineral elements of huge significance to the human body. Their deficiencies have shown clear physical presentations. What are their nutritive and health value?
We will continue with the Psycho-emotional effect of Music but this time, we will focus more on its emotional influence and how it can help relationships especially, to avoid emotional stress
Music therapy is aimed at nourishing the soul and sending in nutrients through it for somatic (bodily) improvements. Music, be it in professional terms or otherwise has that deep effect
When two different drugs are taken together, they may produce effects different from those produced when the drug is taken alone. In many cases, this is beneficial and they are said to be synergistic
A drug substance is the active ingredient or component that produces pharmacologic activity. A drug product is the finished dosage form ( for example, tablet, capsule)
Sleep is a basic necessity of life. Our health, happiness and ability to succeed in life are strongly dependent on how well we meet our bodies’ needs for rest and quality sleep.
Due to the singular fact that stress affects nearly every system in the body, it plays a role in many disorders such as depression, eating disorders and anorexia, fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome
Stress exists whenever there is a change in equilibrium of a man-machine-environment system which commonly results in a manifestation of human strain. The society, the working world
The sources of stress are much. They range from one individual to another. Sources or causes of stress can, however, be grouped into several key areas.
Stress can be seen as positive (good stress) and negative (bad stress), both of which manifest from a variety of sources.
Stress is an ever present and growing element in our working lives. It requires both simple and complex techniques to deal with it- techniques which become essential skills for survival
When assessing the patient’s motivation to enter weight loss therapy, the following factors should be evaluated:
The presence of overweight or obesity in a patient is of medical concern because it increases the risk of several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus
Some of the benefits of exercise occur soon but others take longer time. So if you are not being active, you lose the fitness you achieved. Doing a little everyday makes the most sense for your health
Clinical diagnosis is based on weight, physical appearance and measurement of skin fold thickness. Sophisticated methods are available to establish the diagnosis in a borderline case.
Animal proteins and vitamin C enhances Iron absorption, while phytates and phosphates retard it. Iron is absorbed from the duodenum and upper jejunum.
Most of the phosphorus (85%) in the body is present in bones and teeth. In all tissues, this element is present intracellularly as phosphates. The total body content of phosphorus is 800 to 900g.
The total body content of calcium is 1200g in an adult. This is present in the skeleton, teeth, plasma, and in all tissues.
James Lind, a scotish naval physician, recognized the antiscorbutic properties of citrous fruits in 1753 and this was considered an important discovery with far- reaching effects.
The vitamin is absorbed in the proximal small intestine after hydrolysis of polyglutamates. Human body can store about 6 to 10 mg, especially in the liver.
Deficiency of vitamin B12 or folates leads to abnormality in DNA synthesis, characterised by megaloblastic erythropoiesis and similar changes in many tissues in the body.
Nicotinic acid forms an integral part of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphate (NADP) which acts as coenzymes in the metabolic pathways of glucose and proteins.
Riboflavin, Pyridoxine, Pantothenic Acid and Biotin are essential minerals needed by the body to carry out lost of metabolic functions. For this reason, they are of huge significance to us.
Thiamine plays an essential part in the metabolism of carbohydrates by acting as a coenzyme required for the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl coenxyme A.
Vitamin E also known as the antisterility and vitamin K, also known as the coagulation vitamins are of huge importance to Human's health. Let's find out why
Osteomalacia denotes those disorders where mineralization of newly formed bone matrix (osteoid) is defective
Early manifestations include These include irritability, flabbiness of muscles, prominence of abdomen and delay in the appearance of milestones, except speech. Florid rickets manifests by the age of 1 to 2 years.
Vitamin D is required for normal metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and for bone formation. It enhances the absorption of these minerals from the gut, their mobilization from bone
The earliest symptom is night blindness, followed by degenerative changes in the retina. The bulbar conjunctiva becomes dry, and rough grayish triangular foamy raised patches appear (Bitot’s spots).
Vitamins are organic substances which have to be applied in food in minute quantities to maintain the biochemical and structural integrity of many cells and tissues.
In this condition, features of marasmus and kwashiorkor are present simultaneously. The body weight is less than 60% of the normal. Dependent edema is present.
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has been defined by WHO and FAO (1973) as a range of pathological conditions arising from coincident lack of protein and calories in varying proportions occurring
Surprisingly, even keeping fit and doing exercise have their side effects. The two main side effects are dehydration and overstraining. How can one balance the equilibriun?
Our risk of developing many illnesses, especially long term (chronic) disease, may be lower if we are physically active.
Physical exercise is fundamental to healthy living. “Yes” or “No” is not a sufficient answer to the question “Are you fit?” Everyone has some level of fitness. However, you could feel better and healthier
Severe starvation on a mass scale occurs during special situations like prolonged war, drought and other natural or political calamities. Chronic starvation of different grades affects large number of people
The female reproductive system is designed to carry out several functions including production of the female egg, provision of safe environment for conception
Proteins together with water, form the basic building units of tissues. In addition, they function as enzymes and hormones and also take part in transport mechanisms.
Living organisms cannot create energy but can only transform it. The food we eat provides calories for energy needs, proteins to build and maintain the body tissues, and vitamins and minerals to
Malnutrition results from deviations from normal nutrition. Frank clinical signs and definite biochemical abnormalities occur in gross malnutrition, but only borderline changes occur in the majority of cases
Nutrition encompasses the intake of exogenous substances supplied in the diet and their transformation into substances necessary for the maintenance of life, growth, normal functioning of the organs
These are situations demanding urgent psychiatric intervention to avoid danger to the individual or to others. Suicide, acute psychotic excitement, acute intoxication, acute anxiety and panic reactions
Drug dependence is a condition arising in a person from the administration of drug on a periodic or continuous basis. Drug abuse, habituation and addiction are synonymous terms.
Alcoholism is the condition resulting from the intake of alcohol in quantities great enough to damage the physical health or the personal or social functioning of an individual
These are known by several terms such as abnormal personality, psychopathic personality, etc. This is a situation arising out of one or more abnormal character traits.
Obsessive compulsive neurosis and reactive depression are special manifestations of personality disorders is psychosis. Let's find out their clinical and health significance!
This neurotic disorder is characterized by psychogenic loss or disorder of function, manifested either as conversion reaction or as dissociative reaction
Hysteria can mimic any disease. Symptoms may be those of conversion reaction or dissociative reaction.
Anxiety neurosis is characterized by unpleasant feelings of fear, tension, impending danger, or panic reactions. Neurosis on its own is a group of diseases, affecting somatic neural functions of the body.